CHAPTER 10: Conclusions

Why is it necessary to state the obvious about history? So that we are properly impressed by the local profession’s most recent accomplishment – to have made Australian history so dull and seemingly irrelevant that our children do not want to study it.

  • Don Watson, ‘Back to the Past’, Australian Review of Books, July, 1987, p.7.


Almost every person of mature age I’ve spoken to in the last 25 years about fraternal societies has told of family upsets, and worse, resulting from the Catholic-Protestant divide. My own family was no exception. Interviewees tell of neighbourhood slanging matches, priestly intervention into family intimacies, pitched battles between school-age children, which were clearly much more common than today’s ‘ethnic’ riots, and of relationships devastated by entrenched hatreds. Such history has clearly helped to shape many of the major literary works of the period, not to mention its politics, yet none appears in ‘History’, popular or academic.

‘Sectarian passion’ amongst school children of the late-1920’s in north Queensland appeared briefly in Ward’s 1988 autobiography but even capturing his own personal experiences made no impact on his understanding of ‘mateship’. He used the term ‘secret society’ after 1945 only for government-sponsored spy networks:

Behind the state and federal governments of the day, and behind the secret police and counter-espionage organisations nominally responsible to them, there were and are in Australia powerful secret societies the members of which are responsible to no-one but themselves.[mxxx]

The guild system was created by, and operated within a context which provided it with an integrated organisational purpose. The ‘official’ exponents of twentieth-century fraternalism, driven and shaped by managerial/national considerations, have fought against a need for context and have denied continuity.

It’s not understood today that ‘individual choice’ once stood for local autonomy and the virtues of good neighbourliness, as well as personal freedom. Nor that at the very time when mateship, mutuality and benign larrikinism were being romanticised, they were being repudiated in practice. A plea, ‘Why the Guild System Must be Restored’ by UK author Orage and reprinted in The Age in 1907 was swimming against a very strong tide:[mxxxi]

Under the Guild system each craft in return for specific public privileges undertook certain specific public responsibilities. The privileges were those of self-government, the regulation of their own rules of work, the regulation of their own standards of workmanship, the right to exclude the non-efficient and the right to control their own members. In return for these privileges they undertook a corporate responsibility for workmanship and price. In other words, they guaranteed as skilled (craftsmen) in their own mystery, the excellence and general workmanship of all their members.

As governments have taken over more and more welfare functions, and the managerial/bureaucratic approach has become more entrenched, the worker’s identification with ‘his’ secret society, has turned into child-like embarrassment at being seen in regalia. Even in Freemasonry, where ritual gives the impression that traditions are being maintained, the once-sturdy reverence, awe and mysticism have become confused fingerings of ‘stuff’ that almost no-one understands.

Amongst Friendly Societies the centralisation and specialisation imperatives, first sighted in the 1793 Rose Act, have achieved their implied goals. Most ‘Orders’ have ‘de-mutualised’ or have been swallowed in ‘mergers’ with other private health funds, often mere finance and investment houses. All have left fraternalism far behind. The’friendlies’ were major losers in the 20th century struggle for control of ‘the State’ and thus of its agenda and resources, including those of health and welfare. In 1984 Green and Cromwell correctly reported that:

By the turn of the [19th-20th] century it was common in some circles to see social progress as almost synonymous with growing State intervention, with Australia widely seen as progressive…[mxxxii]

The romance of ‘the State as the People’ appeared with definitions such as this by Deakin:

A colonial Liberal is one who favours state interference with liberty and industry at the pleasure and in the interest of the majority, while those who stand for the free play of individual choice and energy are classed as conservatives.

Trade unionists’ concentration on working conditions and on influencing policies of the Australian Labor Party, has meant their industrial strength, mostly exercised behind a State-centrist model of social organisation, has been measured only in materialist terms. ‘Brotherhood’, ‘mutuality’ and genuine welcoming of an initiate can still be found in the odd Masonic lodge but even there it’s becoming a rarer and rarer phenomenon.

In the gap left by the lack of an authentic history, the literary/intellectual community has adopted a romanticised ‘mateship’ and a de-contextualised Lawson, et al, because fanciful history has suited its agendas. Horne in 1964 and Max Harris in 1973,[mxxxiii] are just two well-known late-20th century authors who recycled the radical myth rather than engage in primary research. Ward’s The Australian Legend was to hand, so they took it at face value and entrenched its flaws. The consequences of self-satisfaction and a lack of scepticism have been the already-observed neglect and superficiality. There have been exceptions – Sylvia Lawson concluded her book on Archibald and The Bulletin with a lament that neither of her subjects had been better understood:

Australia did not see itself as needing new ways of reading or using its own past..In the early 1980’s [as she was writing] the land seems more than ever in the grip of the Philistines.

Gerster pointed out in 1987:

Australian war writers – especially from the time of the Anzac landings at Gallipoli in April 1915 – have written more in the manner of publicity agents for the ‘Digger’ as an exemplar of heroic racial characteristics than as disinterested observers of human conflict.[mxxxiv]

On the other hand, Gascoigne’s 2005 thesis on the Enlightenment in Australia is only a gentrified variation of ‘the radical illusion’:

The thin elite who largely determined the direction of events (from 1788 to 1850, when European Australia was largely formed) generally assumed that society’s problems could be solved by the exercise of reason and that if such a path were followed improvement would naturally follow..(Such) beliefs..still largely determine the agenda for politics in Australia.[mxxxv]

Along the way, both (Henry) Lawson’s idealised ‘mateship’ and the fraternal original have been bastardised, as in well-known usages by both major political parties. Although he came to prominence well after 1945, it’s probable that the ‘colorful’ NSW Liberal Party politician, Bob Askin received his grounding attitudes well before, in the Depression years when mobsters such as ‘Tilly’ Devine and detectives such as Noel Kelly defined ‘mates’ somewhat differently to members of 19th century lodges. Said to be ‘strong in the Masons’ by someone who knew him fraternally, he has been credited with having given organised crime an enormous boost in the 1960’s and 70’s, along with his ‘mate’ Percy Galea, ‘a pillar of the Catholic Church’, and inducted Knight of the Order of St John by the Vatican in 1977.[mxxxvi]

The protective barriers around lodges originally were to safeguard sacred knowledge. The protective barriers around each of the strands of ‘modern’ fraternalism have been used to dismiss any suggestion that it was linked via a common context to the others, that fraternal societies might actually be siblings.

Each of the strands has insisted its history was separate and should be, indeed could only be, written by insiders. Supposedly, only initiates could know what was truth. Only initiates would know which other true believer might be trusted to know and keep the record. Because those insiders had already misplaced the context, the descriptions provided of themselves and their actions have been strong on self-service and weak on illumination.[mxxxvii]

It would seem probable that the well-read Archibald knew of the guilds and their connections with more recent fraternal societies, and that Lawson, Paterson, et al were at least aware of fraternalism’s underlying principles. Future research may well turn up relevant memberships. Recent superficial and derogatory generalisations such as ‘black arm band’ have further colonised the space.

That the void where genuine history might have been has been available is not totally the fault of the writers who’ve attempted explanation of modern Australia. ‘History’ has been a prize and a weapon in social conflicts for a very long time. In Australia’s short, white period, and in the absence of an authoritative narrative, ‘history’ has been a jig saw puzzle the pieces of which could be assembled and dis-assembled as many times as there were aspirants for ‘the truth.’

One cannot argue that revision should be prohibited. But it would seem necessary that at least the largest pieces be known. Hitherto, fraternalism and the fraternal societies have been missing, equally unavailable to compilers of a full picture and to policy makers.

Volunteers from the general population can be easily found to carry Olympic programs or to maintain community health, sporting and educational initiatives, attesting that the urge to engage in mutual aid remains strong. Perhaps this also attests to the presence of a reservoir of support for mutuality. And perhaps, as many will argue, there is no longer any need for the rites and regalia of fraternalism as defined here, in order for ‘mateship’ to thrive.

Not being a soothsayer I can only say in response that the future is more dangerous and more difficult without an understanding of the past. Fraternal societies did exist, they did provide sinew and gristle for what we now have. Fraternal societies were the means by which ‘mateship’ was available at all. They may well have no future part to play, but can we afford to lose an understanding of their underlying principles as well?

The period of innovation and cataclysmic change we now call the ‘industrial revolution’ was actually a time of loss, a time when the glue holding the five functions of fraternal societies together in an integrated whole was being lost. In the longer sweep of history the industrial revolution was not the creator of working class organisation, nor even a dynamic field which ‘forced’ ordinary people to organise, rather it is a collective name for the forces of dis-integration wearing ‘community’ away.

The fraternalism which came to and spread throughout Australia was already ill with the managerial virus when it arrived, if we compare it to the medieval original. The 19th century concentration on finances and investments, what in-house authors have said were the indicators of strength and importance of 19th century fraternalism, was actually evidence of antibodies already present and multiplying. Yet fraternalism proved adaptable to its new surroundings, achieved rapid and remarkable growth:

* At the personal and family level it made survival possible and enhanced positive development of many individuals;

* At the local, community level, fraternal societies instituted or made possible the creation of infrastructure, from houses to schools and bridges, and

* At the national level, fraternalism has been a major creator of the ‘Australia’ we have all experienced.

A lack of understanding of their own history and irresponsibility towards their material heritage have been common factors in the decline of fraternal societies, possibly to nothing. Public projection of their historical image, in Kellerman’s terms – ‘passing on fraternal ideals’ – was the one factor over which the fraternals had most control and which at least had the potential to slow the ‘modernist’ purge of meaningful ceremonial. The insular, self-serving ‘histories’ which I’ve critiqued may be seen as an attempted response to this need, but they were not the only possible response.

A more effective alternative would have been to accept, cultivate and celebrate the heritage, as well as adapting to the new administrative demands. At the very least, knowledge of their authentic history may have enabled them to confront their various opponents more convincingly, and may well have resulted in very different outcomes. This can only be speculation.

However, the conclusion seems inescapable. At the very time that ‘mateship’ was being romanticised, fraternalism’s sustaining organisations flirted briefly with a fantastic version of mediaevalism, only to turn and walk away, not just from the fanciful deceits but from meaningful history as a whole.

In the 20th century, while still sufficiently strong, trade-oriented societies did not care enough to attempt this path to renewal. Friendly societies have been fraternally impotent for some time. It remains to be seen, as I write these last words in 2010, whether Australian Speculative Freemasonry has the wit and the strength to join the push for renewal being articulated by their brothers, and sisters, in Europe and North America. [mxxxviii]

[ii] J Harland-Jacobs, Builders of Empire, U of N Carolina Press, 2006, p.1.

[iii]. My definition slightly modifies that used by A Schmidt, Fraternal Organisations, Greenwood, 1980, pp.3-4, including that it covers female as well as male memberships.

[iv]. D Byrne, ‘Commentary’, in W Oldham, Britain’s Convicts to the Colonies, Sydney, 1990, p.257.

[v]. Horne, 1964, p.15.

[vi] D Horne, The Education of Young Donald, Penguin, 1975, p.23.

[vii]. Australians – An Historical Library – from 1939, Vol 5, Fairfax, Symes & Weldon, p.85, or P & S Forrest, Banjo and Christina: The True Story of Waltzing Matilda, Shady Tree, Darwin, 2008, p.14, quoting Blainey’s A Land Half Won, as examples of this ‘furphy.’

[viii]. See J Snoek, ‘Researching Freemasonry: Where are we?’, CRFF Working Papers, Series No 2, Centre for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism, Uni of Sheffield, 2007.

[ix] R Ward, The Australian Legend, OUP, 1958, p.1.

[x] R Ward, 1958, p.83.

[xi]. See J Hirst, ‘An Oddity from the Start: Convicts and National Character’, The Monthly, July, 2008, p.38.

[xii] G Bolton & W Hudson, Creating Australia, Allen & Unwin, 1997, p.3. In his 2008, Land of Vicion and Mirage: Western Australia since 1826, UWAP, Bolton had not moved to fill any gaps.

[xiii] Keneally’s ‘Introduction’, to P Adams-Smith, Heart of Exile, Nelson, 1986, p.x.

[xiv]. R Spann, ‘Tha Catholic Vote in Australia’, in H Mayer (ed), Catholics and the Free Society An Australian Symposium, Cheshire, 1961, p.134.

[xv] J Bollen, Protestantism and Social Reform in in New South Wales, MUP, 1972, p.3.

[xvi] Bollen 1972, as above, p.11.

[xvii] M Clark, ‘Rewriting Australian History’, Occasional Writing and Speeches, Fontana, 1980, p.3.

[xviii] M Clark, “Themes in ‘A History of Australia’”, as above, 1980, p.87.

[xix] Clark, ‘A Discovery of Australia’, 1980, as above. p.61.

[xx] ‘How the Aussie Battler Was Born’, review by N Abjorensen of G Boucher & M Sharpe’s The Times Will Suit Them, Allen & Unwin, 2008, in the SMH’s Spectrum, Nov 22-23, 2008, p.36.

[xxi]. De Tocqueville, as above, Vol 2, p.118. I am grateful to Dan Weinbren for this reference.

[xxii]. I have recently surveyed this neglect in Squandering Social Capital: Trade Unions, Freemasons and Friendly Societies in Australia, self-published, 2003, especially ‘The Literature of Friendly Societies’.

[xxiii]. D Green and L Cromwell, Mutual Aid or Welfare State – Australia’s Friendly Societies, Allen & Unwin, 1984, p.xvii.

[xxiv]. Green & Cromwell, as above, p.xviii.

[xxv] N Hicks, ‘Medical History and History of Medecine’, in Osborne & Mandle (eds), New History, Allen & Unwin, 1982.

[xxvi]. F Larcombe, The Origin of Local Government in New South Wales, 1831-1858, (1 of 3 Vols), U of Sydney, 1973, p.120.

[xxvii]. Larcombe, Vol 1, as above, p.11.

[xxviii]. A de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Vol 1, Vintage, 1945, p.198.

[xxix] S Bullock, Revolutionary Brotherhood, U of North Carolina Press, 1996, p.110.

[xxx] Quoted in C Brooke, The Gothic Cathedral, Elek, 1969, p.80.

[xxxi] B McRee, ‘Charity and Gild Solidarity in Late Medieval England’, Journal of British Studies, July, 1993, p.195.

[xxxii] Amongst the material available, S Thrupp’s, The Merchant Class of Mediaeval London, Ann Arbor, 1962, espec Ch 1, is recommended.

[xxxiii]. See my Mateship, Fraternalism and Secret Societies in Australia 1788-2008 An Introduction, Newcastle, 2008,for references.

[xxxiv]. See A Baker, Fraternity Among the French Peasantry: Sociobility and Voluntary Associations in the Loire Valley, 1815-1914, Cambridge UP, 1999, p.2, for example.

[xxxv]. J Harland-Jacobs, 2007, p.17.

[xxxvi]. For a related view, see P Rich, Elixir of Empire: The English Public Schools, Freemasonry and Imperialism, Regency, 1989.

[xxxvii]. Harland-Jacobs, 2007, as above, p.3.

[xxxviii] Quoted at B Jones, Frances Yates and the Hermetic Tradition, Ibis, 2008, p.102.

[xxxix]. Copy of Laws bound with others at LT824S08(v1), VSL.

[xl]. From Postgate, quoted in J Clapham, An Economic History of Modern Britain – The Early Railway Age, 1820-1850, CUP, 1926, p.594.

[xli] J Gascoigne, The Enlightenment and the Origins of European Australia, UNSW, 2005, p.169.

[xlii]. Among labour scholars only Gwyn Williams is known to have taken this information seriously, see his ‘Introduction’ to J Gorman’s Banner Bright, Lane, 1973, pp.1-20, from which the next two quotations come.

[xliii]. Select Committee on Artisans and Machinery, UK Parliament, 1838-9, quoted at Clapham, 1926 (above), p.210. The ‘Masonic copy’ argument should not survive a close perusal of H Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, Irish Historical Press, 1998, espec pp.200-205.

[xliv]. Rules for the Grand United Order of Oddfellows, NSW, 1988, p.1.

[xlv]. See E Hobsbawm, ‘The Tramping Artisan’, in his Labouring Men, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1964, pp.34-63.

[xlvi]. J Harland-Jacobs, 2007.

[xlvii]. M Flynn, Settlers and Seditionists, Angela Lind, Sydney, 1994, for background. See also Freemasonry Today, No 7, 2009 (Summer, UK)for brief articles, ‘Freemasonry and the French Revolution’ and ‘Freemasons and Revolution’.

[xlviii]. The literature alleging direct connections between French and US Freemasonry and the French Revolution and the US War of Independence, often via such characters as Benjamin Franklin, is extensive.

[xlix] As opposed to the operative or artisinal stonemasons who worked in free stone who might also be called ‘freemasons’, just one of the historical confusions around this term.

[l] D Byrnes, ‘The Blackheath Connection: London Local History and the Settlement at New South Wales, 1786-1806’, The Push, No 28, 1990, pp.50-98.

[li]. Levi & Bergmann, as above, p.46; see also ‘Index to the Colonial Secretary’s Papers-1797’, NSW State Library.

[lii]. C Hibbert, King Mob, Readers Union, 1959, espec pp.23-25. See for colour, T Parsons, ‘Was John Boston’s Pig a Political Martyr? The Reaction to Popular Radicalism in Early NSW’, JRAHS, Dec, 1985.

[liii]. P Mirala, Freemasonry in Ulster 1733-1813, Four Courts Press, 2007.

[liv]. S Tillyard, Citizen Lord, Chatto & Windus, 1997, p.224.

[lv] J Heron Lepper commenting on W Williams, ‘Alexander Pope and Freemasonry’, AQC, Vol 38, p.131.

[lvi]. The Freemasons Repository, 1797, quoted in B Caillard, ‘Australia’s First Lodge Meeting’, Transactions of Quatuor Coronati, Vol 100, 1987, 225. See discussion of this point in A Atkinson, The Europeans in Australia, OUP, 1997, pp.247-250.

[lvii] History of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Ireland, Vol 1, Lodge of Research, Dublin, 1925, pp.315, 317.

[lviii] Catalogued as though it is by ‘J Heron Lepper’, the GL Librarian of the time, it is in fact by ‘WR Day’ – see OAN 105 LEP.

[lix]. G Bell, The Protestants of Ulster, Pluto, 1976, p.15, quoting H Senior, Orangeism in Ireland and Britain, London, Routledge, 1966, p.6.

[lx]. S Leighton, ‘The Rebellion of 1798’, in History of Freemasonry in the Province of Antrim, Northern Ireland, Belfast, 1938, p.25.

[lxi] Newcastle Chronicle, 26 March, 1870.

[lxii] J Harland-Jacobs, 2007, pp.150-156.

[lxiii]. See Mirala, 2007, pp.43-50.

[lxiv]. Mirala, 2007, as above, p.45.

[lxv]. E Turner, ‘..Not Narrow Minded Bigots’, PhD, 2002, UNE, pp.16-17, quoting D Stevenson, The Origins of Freemasonry, CUP, Cambridge, 1988, p.7.

[lxvi]. Turner, 2002, p.5.

[lxvii]. Harland-Jacobs, 2007, p.121.

[lxviii]. A Stewart, A Deeper Silence: The Hidden Roots of the United Irish Movement, Faber & Faber, 1993, p.156.

[lxix]. B Andrews (ed), Tales of the Convict System, UQP, 1975, espec ‘Secret Society of the Ring’. Originally published in The Bulletin and other papers, these stories have not been authenticated. The author, William Astley writing as ‘Price Warung’ claimed to have carried out the relevant oral interviews and to have researched the appropriate documents which relate more to the 1840’s than earlier.

[lxx]. R Ward, The Australian Legend, OUP, 1989, pp.13, 30-31.

[lxxi]. See, for example, N Mantle, Horse & Rider in Australian Legend, Miegunyah, 2004, espec pp.16-17.

[lxxii]. K Amos, The Fenians in Australia, UNSW Press, 1988, p.22.

[lxxiii]. C Roderick, An Introduction to Australian Fiction, Angus & Robertson, 1950, p.30.

[lxxiv] FM&MM, 27 May, 1865, p.403.

[lxxv]. P Brown, The French Revolution in English History, George Allen, London, 1918, pp.56-57.

[lxxvi] C Beale, A Short Account of Modern Druidism..(etc), nd, 1926?, np, p.2.

[lxxvii] ‘Secret Manifesto of the Friends of Freedom in Ireland,’ authors Wolfe Tone and others, June, 1791, quoted in ‘1798: The United Irishmen and the Early Trade Unions’ on <>

[lxxviii] James Green to Lord Portland, (Home Secretary), Leeds, 17 April, 1799, PRO HO42/47, Nat Archives Kew.

[lxxix] Letter, Henry Eyles to Portland, 2 January, 1795, re ‘the L of Affability, No 56, Bradford’, at PRO HO 42/34/2, NA, Kew.

[lxxx] Freemasons Magazine and Masonic Mirror, 30 July, 1859, p.70.

[lxxxi]. K Cramp & G Mackaness, A History of the United Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of New South Wales, Vol 1, Angus & Robertson, 1938.

[lxxxii]. Cramp & Mackaness, 1938, as above, p.1. A less error-ridden account of the earliest years is in The Centennial Story The History of Freemasonry in Queensland, 1859-1959, UGL, Qld, 1959.

[lxxxiii]. This first lodge was re-titled ‘Australian Social Mother No 1’, and then later ‘Antiquity’. W Henley, History of Lodge Australian Social Mother No 1, Sydney, 1920, Ch 3. But see also R Cook, ‘The Irish Connection’, Freemasonry Uncovered, Vic Lodge of Research, Vol 9, 1996, pp.79-101.

[lxxxiv] See G Phillips, The First Hundred Years, 1924, Sydney.

[lxxxv] Sir Joseph Banks, Mathew Flinders and other individuals involved in the colony’s earliest white history have been claimed as ‘Masons’, but the citations invariably begin with ‘It is believed that..’. See Masonic Historical Society (Sydney)information sheets for most credible accounts.

[lxxxvi]. A Atkinson, Europeans in Australia, OUP, 1997, p.245. Atkinson provides no references for a number of important claims about SF, eg, that soldiers were prohibited from becoming Masons in 1813, and some other relevant references are mis-labelled.

[lxxxvii]. Hunter to Portland, 12 Nov, 1796, HRNSW, Series 1, Vol 111. p.168.

[lxxxviii]. King to (Gov) Phillip, 27 Dec, 1791, HRNSW, Series 1, Vol 111.

[lxxxix]. G Cumming, Freemasonry on Norfolk Island, Self-published, 1996, pp.10-11.

[xc] See ‘Confessions Relating to Norfolk Island’, December 1800, NSW Archives Office, 5/1156; F Clune, The Norfolk Story, Angus & Robertson, 1967, p.69.

[xci] Y Cramer (ed), This Beauteous, Wicked Place, NLA, 2000, p.137.

[xcii]. The NSW Corps was expressly formed for securing the NSW penal settlement.

[xciii] History of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Ireland Vol 1, 1925, Lodge of Research, Dublin, p.317. The original ‘petition’ has not survived.

[xciv] J Gallagher, ‘The Revolutionary Irish 1800 1804’, The Push from the Bush, April, 1985, (No 19), p.6.

[xcv]. G Cumming, 1996, p.15.

[xcvi] I am here referring to the 1808 ‘Lee’ reference, and the 1820 Hobart newspaper reference which has the 15 names. The 1807 ‘Piper’ letter refers to neither land nor a building.

[xcvii]. R Wright, The Forgotten Generation of Norfolk Island and Van Dieman’s Land, p.37, p.57.

[xcviii] A Sharp, ‘Lodge St John No 1 Norfolk Island and Hobart Town: Some Members and their Families’, Research Lodge of NSW, Pt 1, Feb, 2000. Copy of additional notes with writer.

[xcix]. J Lane, Masonic Records, 1717-1814..(etc), London, 1895, repr 2000.

[c] A Tink, William Charles Wentworth Australia’s Greatest Native Son, Allen & Unwin, 2009, pp.1-13.

[ci]. King, Proclamation, 2 April, 1802, HRA, Series 1, Vol 111, pp.618-19.

[cii]. King to Hobart, 12 March, 1804, HRA, Series 1, Vol 1V, p.565; Y Cramer (ed), This Beauteous, Wicked Place Letters and Journals of John Grant, Gentleman Convict, NLA, 2000, pp.33 and 109, pp.114-5.

[ciii]. Flynn, 1994, as above, p.xlii (pic 4).

[civ] C Dyer, The French Explorers and Sydney, UQP, 2009, is a highly romantic, conflict and conspiracy-free interpretation of relevant interractions.

[cv] See Kass, Liston & McClymont, Parramatta A Past Revealed, Parramatta City Council, 1996, p.78 and footnotes.

[cvi] K Binney, Horsemen of the First Frontier, Volcanic, 2005, p.140.

[cvii]. F Clune, The Norfolk Island Story, 1986 (orig 1967), Angus & Robertson, pp.82-107.

[cviii] P O’Shaughnessy (ed), A Rum Story, Kangaroo Press, 1988, p.78.

[cix] F Clune, Scallywags of Sydney Cove, Angus & Robertson, 1968, p.138; Cramer, 2000, as above, p.57.

[cx]. HRA, Series 1, Vol 2, ‘The Irish Conspiracy’, p.582.

[cxi] O’Shaughnessy, 1988, as above, p.46.

[cxii]. See Cramp & Mackaness, as above, pp.2-5; A Sharp, ‘Australia’s Oldest Masonic Document: A Factual Interpretation’, AQC, Vol 104, 1991, from p.150; B Caillard, ‘Australia’s First Lodge Meeting’, AQC, Vol 100, 1987, from p.224. See also, R Linford, ‘The Road to Independence: Political and Masonic Experience in 19th Century NSW,’ AQC, Vol 111 (1998), pp.134-135.

[cxiii] See the very useful account of H Evatt, The Rum Rebellion, Angus & Robertson, 1939, espec pp.28-9, and J & T St Clair, ‘Frederick Garling and William Henry Moore, the First Crown Solicitors in NSW’, Masonic Historical Society Paper No 16, Sydney, 1994.

[cxiv] See Gallagher, 1985, as above, p.23, for details.

[cxv]. Sharp, 1991, as above, p.164.

[cxvi] See one account at P Tunbridge & C Batham, ‘The Climate of European Freemasonry 1750-1810’, AQC, Vol 83 (1970), pp.248-273.

[cxvii]. Atkinson, 1997, as above, p.278.

[cxviii]. W Henley, History of the Lodge Australian Social Mother No 1, Sydney, 1920, pp.37-40.

[cxix]. King to Hobart, 1 March, 1803, HRA, Series 1, Vol IV, p.341; Sydney Gazette, 17 May, 1803. See also F Clune, The Norfolk Island Story, Angus & Robertson, 1986 (orig 1967), p.96; G Phillips, The First Hundred Years, 1824-1924, of Leinster Marine Lodge of Australia, 1924, Sydney, pp.13-15.

[cxx].Atkinson, 1997, as above, p.244.

[cxxi]. Hayes to Blaxcell,6 May, 1803, HRNSW, Vol 5. See footnote at p. 101 which refers to Whittle as ‘involved in the mutiny at Norfolk Island in 1794’; see Cramer, 2000, as above, espec from p.97, where it is claimed he was arrested five times over 10 years in the colony.

[cxxii] The Masonic Guide of New South Wales, 1903-4, Sydney, 1903, espec p.37.

[cxxiii]. King to Under-Secretary King, 14 August, 1804, HRNSW, Vol 5.

[cxxiv] See Cramer, 2000, as above, pp.151-3.

[cxxv]. HRA, Vol 5, 5 May 1805, Colnett to King, and subseq.

[cxxvi] Bligh and Hayes had apparently become good friends, Bligh arranging a pardon before his, Hayes’ departure in 1812. See M Ellis, John Macarthur, Angus & Robertson, 1955 for a detailed account.

[cxxvii]. Atkinson, 1997, as above, p.284.

[cxxviii] See Evatt, 1939, as above, espec chaps XLIV to end.

[cxxix] Tink, as above, 2009, pp.20-21.

[cxxx]. Bligh to Castlereagh, 10 June, 1809, HRA, Series 1, Vol 7, p.159.

[cxxxi]. Cramp and Mackaness, as above, p.19.

[cxxxii]. Cramp and Mackaness, as above, p.21.

[cxxxiii]. M Ellis, Francis Greenway: His Life and Times, Angus & Robertson, 1953, p.62; W Henley, History of Lodge Australian Social Mother No 1, 1920.

[cxxxiv] AQC, 17, 1904, pp.145-6, and pp.230-2, ‘Notes on Irish Freemasonry – No VIII’ and ‘Supplementary Note’; AQC, 23, 1910, p.95, ‘Notes and Queries’, by WJ Chetwode Crawley. The Washington initiation has been questioned by J Heron Lepper – see his ‘The Poor Common Soldier’, AQC, Vol 38, p.171.

[cxxxv] E Burne, ‘The First Twenty Years (1820-40) of Freemasonry in Australia, Established by the Free Settlers of the Penal Colonies Under Irish Warrants’, Lodge of Research, NO CC, Ireland, Transactions, 1922 (Reprint), from p.78, quote at p.86.

[cxxxvi] Burne, 1922, as above, p.85.

[cxxxvii] Ellis, Dymocks, 1947, as above, p.55.

[cxxxviii] D. Kenny, The History of the Development and Progress of Catholicity in Australia to 1840, Sydney, 1886, pp.34, 35, 37.

[cxxxix] M Ellis, Lachlan Macquarie, Dymocks, 1947 – for Bland, p.443, for the altar boy and Campbell, pp.569-70.

[cxl] HRA, Series 1, Vol 9, ‘Macquarie to Duke of York, 25 July, 1817’, p.443 et seq.

[cxli] For Clayton see A Astin, ‘Samuel Clayton, Australian Masonic Pioneer’, NSW Lodge of Research, Aug, 1999.

[cxlii] Thomas, as above, p.38.

[cxliii] Baernreither, as above, p.156.

[cxliv]. D Defoe, ‘Of Friendly Societies’, in An Essay Upon Projects, 1696, various editions since. For early references, see my Odd Fellows – Ancient, Independent and United – Their Origins, 2009.

[cxlv]. Stephen’s Almanack for 1847. Footnote incomplete.

[cxlvi] C Glover, A History of First Fifty Years of Freemasonry in South Australia 1834-1884, V 1, 1915, pp.342-3.

[cxlvii] Australian, 26 Nov, 1844.

[cxlviii] J Heron Lepper, ‘The Poor Common Soldier’, AQC, Vol 38, pp.163-4.

[cxlix] Cramp & Mackaness, 1938, as above, p.53.

[cl] C Baxter, The Irresistible Temptation, Allen & unwin, 2006, pp.100-103, and endnote 24, p.370.

[cli] See Baxter, 2006, as above, for refs including at pp.200-201, and Tink, 2009, pp.113-subsq.

[clii] Reuben Uther to GLI, ‘Craft Lodge 260, 23 March, 1829’, in GLI Archives, Correspondence with Masonic Lodges in NSW, 1821-1888, FM4/10585, NSL.

[cliii] C. Baxter, Breaking the Bank, Allen & Unwin, 2008.

[cliv] R Uther to GLI, 15 March, 1830, GLI Archives, as above.

[clv] Tink, 2009, p.134.

[clvi] This story can be tracked from 21 Nov, 1829 in the various newspapers, eg, Sydney Gazette and The Australian.

[clvii] ‘Craft Lodge No 260, 12 Nov, 1821,’, GLI Archives, ‘Correspondence with Masonic Lodges in NSW, 1821-1888’, FM4/10585, NSL.

[clviii] GLI Archives, as above, 2 Feb, 1823.

[clix] GLI Archives, as above, 20, 29 Oct, 1825.

[clx]. A letter, signed ‘Emigrant’, to the Colonial Times (Hobart), 10 August, 1841.

[clxi] G Dow, Samuel Terry The Botany Bay Rothschild, Sydney UP, 1974.

[clxii]. All ‘Levey notes’ from J Levi & G Bergman, Australian Genesis: Jewish Convicts and Settlers 1788-1850, Rigby, 1974, espec p.111 & subq.

[clxiii] ‘Corresp. L 260 to GLI, 6 Feb, 1834, 12 Oct, 1835, 6 Feb, 1837’, GLI Cat No: 260(B)/22(2), copies at NSL at FM4/10585.

[clxiv] See ‘Corresp. L 260 to GLI at 12 May, 1834, 260(B)/22(1), and 24 Feb. 1836, 260(B)/23(1); Minutes, GLI, 5 March, 1835, 9 Dec, 1836’, copies as above.

[clxv]. G Mackaness (ed), of H Melville’s The History of Van Diemens Land..(etc), (orig 1835), Horwitz-Graham, 1965; For an alternative view see M Levey, Governor George Arthur, Australiana Socy, 1953.

[clxvi]. Levey, 1953, as above, p.323; for Murray’s Masonic record see p.294.

[clxvii] Burne, 1922, as above, p.96.

[clxviii] See A Sharp, Research Lodge of NSW, as above, Feb, 2000; see also Vibert’s ‘Review’ of ‘The History of Freemasonry in Tasmania’, AQC, 1936, pp.226-228.

[clxix] Rowan, ‘Lodge No 313, Tasmanian Lodge, Hobart – Correspondence with Masonic Lodges in Tasmania, 1827-1890’, at GLI, Dublin as 313(B)/, and NSL as FM4/10586, p.9.

[clxx] Rowan, ‘Lodge No 326, Union Lodge, Hobart’, as above, p.16.

[clxxi] Letter ‘345(B)/2’, dated ’27 March, 1834’, refs as above.

[clxxii] Letter to GLI, dated 10 May, 1836, paraphrased and quoted by Rowan, ‘33(A)/11’, as above, p.3.

[clxxiii] Cramp & Mackaness, 1938, as above, p.46.

[clxxiv] History of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Ireland, 1925, as above, p.308.

[clxxv] Letter from GM at 313(B)/21, dated 27 Feb, 1839, responding to ‘313(B)/19 and /20’, and ‘345(B)/10’, of 22 June, 1838, 7 Feb, 1839, and 19 July, 1838, ref as above, p.12.

[clxxvi] Stephen to Grand RAC, Ireland, ‘33(A)/28’, dated 14 April, 1837, ref as above, p.7.

[clxxvii] Burne, 1922, as above, p.103.

[clxxviii] ‘33(A)/19’, Murray to Fowler, dated 28 Jan, 1843, ref as above, p.5.

[clxxix] ‘33(A)/30’, 22 March, 1844, and ‘33(A)/19’, ref as above, pp.5,7.

[clxxx] ‘345(B)/23’, dated 28 Nov, 1843, ref as above, p.23.

[clxxxi]. ‘Toby, Tasmanian Union Lodge, to Nichols, Dec, 1844’. Complaint to GL, London on Nichols’ apparent inaction, 27 March, 1846, at 21/2/c, and 21/c/5, UGL Archives, London.

[clxxxii] GLI Minutes, 1842-49, p.326.

[clxxxiii]. W Henley, A History of Australian Social Mother, No 1, 1920, p.114.

[clxxxiv] Quotes and references in the following account can all be found at GLI Archives, Dublin, 260(B)/, ‘Correspondence of GLI with Masonic Lodges in NSW, 1821-1888’, or at FM4/10585, NSL.

[clxxxv] GR Nichols to GLI, 27 Aug, 1842, in GLI Archives, as above, copy at FM4/10585, NSL

[clxxxvi]. See also Cramp & Mackaness, 1938, as above, p.58.

[clxxxvii]. Bathurst Advocate, 20 May, 1848.

[clxxxviii]. Quoted in Tasmanian Magazine and Masonic Register, (Launceston), 31 March, 1849.

[clxxxix]. Anon, A Free Passage to New South Wales, (1989?), p.14, p.28. (Copy with writer, orig. Certificate sighted)

[cxc] J Algie, Maitland Lodge of Unity, The First Sixty Years, 1982, p.6.

[cxci]. A Campbell, ‘Trial and Defense of Alec Campbell, Operative, for Publishing an Unstamped newspaper, ‘The Tradesman”, Item No 29245, Goldsmiths Kress Library of Economic Literature, 1835, pp.11-12.

[cxcii]. See Thomas, p.21; the 1840 case at AC, 11 Dec, 1840.

[cxciii]. Handwritten ‘Rules..etc.’ at MSQ 520, Dixson Collection, NSW State Library. See Sydney Gazette, 6 May, 1831, for their ‘enrollment’ by Court of Quarter Sessions.

[cxciv] I refer readers to a body of work on this question, eg, A Prescott, ‘The Spirit of Association’, Lecture to Canonbury Masonic Research Centre, May 2001, and to my Manchester Conference Paper of 2004, ‘A Comparison of Fraternalism on Three Continents.’

[cxcv] A Prescott, ‘The Spirit of Association’, Lecture to Canonbury Masonic Research Centre, May 2001, p.22 – copy from author.

[cxcvi] See cover illustration. The Gauntlet, 1833-34, Greenwood Reprint, 1970, mainly pp.929-30 (23 March, 1834), p.945 (30 March, 1834).

[cxcvii] A Durr, ‘Ritual of Association and the Organisations of the Common People’, AQC, Vol 100, 1987, p.89. See also his ‘The Origins of the Craft’, AQC, Vol 96, 1983.

[cxcviii] A Kidd, Manchester, Edin UP, 2002, p.46; The Abstract of Parochial Returns, quoted in J Marshall, ‘The Lancashire Rural Labourer in the Early Nineteenth Century’, Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Socy, Vol 71 (1961), p.124.

[cxcix]. Sydney Gazette, 4 Sept, 1834.

[cc]. M Sullivan, Men and Women of Port Phillip, Hale & Iremonger, 1985, p.185.

[cci]. Sullivan, as above, quoting Simon.

[ccii]. The problematic early history of these OF lodges is told below.

[cciii]. Maitland Mercury, 30 June, 1849.

[cciv]. Colonial Times, 4, 25 Jan, 1845; 4 July, 1845, 10 Feb, 1846.

[ccv]. A group in Fremantle in 1851 was granted a dispensation to establish a court of the Ancient Royal Order of Foresters from Adelaide, but I have no information that it was established. See mfm 1430A/1432A, Battye Library, Perth, for the relevant document, erroneously ascribed to the ‘Independent Order of Foresters’.

[ccvi]. Erroneously joined to the ‘Forty Friends Society’, the ‘Rules of the Sons of Australia’ are at WA State Records Office, No 008 (Cons 350)/

[ccvii]. Perth Gazette, 23 Jan, 1841. This Society celebrated 25 yrs continuous existence in 1862.

[ccviii]. Perth Gazette, 24 June, 1837.

[ccix]. Research Note No 106, quoting from the Perth Gazette, 28 Jan, 1843, in the JS Battye Library, WA State Library, Perth.

[ccx]. ‘Prospectus’, Ausralasian Chronicle [AC], 2 Aug, 1839.

[ccxi]. M Clark, A History of Australia, V 2, MUP, 1968, p.241-2.

[ccxii]. SMH, 14 Oct, 8 Nov, 1843.

[ccxiii]. Australian, 3 March, 1842.

[ccxiv]. Australian, & SMH, 12 April, 1842. The two accounts do not exactly coincide.

[ccxv]. See below for explanation.

[ccxvi]. See, for comparison, ‘Festival of AGL of the Order of Oddfellows’, Australian, 7 Oct, 1842, where Axe is carried by Senior Warden, otherwise much the same, though order changed and some functions passed around.

[ccxvii]. First Hundred Years of Lodge of Australia Felix, No 1, UGL of Victoria, 1940, p.54.

[ccxviii]. PPG, 27 July, 1842.

[ccxix]. RD Boys First Years at Port Phillip, Robertson & Mullens, 1935, pp.136, 140 for processions.

[ccxx]. SMH, 1 April, 1846.

[ccxxi]. Commercial Journal, 4 Jan, 1840.

[ccxxii] SMH, 4 Jan, 1840.

[ccxxiii] D Kenny, The History of the Development and Progress of Catholicity in Australia to 1840, Sydney, 1886, p.191.

[ccxxiv]. SMH, 10 Jan, 1845.

[ccxxv] PPG, 6 Oct, 1841.

[ccxxvi] NMH, 11 Nov, 1878.

[ccxxvii] PPG, 12 Jan, 1842.

[ccxxviii] Its first issue, 7 Oct, 1840, lists no editor, but a Committee including Judge Stephen, Attorney-General, Captain Innes, Commissioner of Police, John Fairfax and numerous reverends.

[ccxxix] Sydney Monitor, 23 Dec, (x2), 29 Dec, 1838.

[ccxxx] Temperance Advocate, 29 Dec, 1841; Omnibus and Sydney Spectator, 25 Dec, 1841.

[ccxxxi] Letter ‘Teetotalism’, (Aust) Morning Chronicle, 14 May, 1845.

[ccxxxii] SH, 21 Dec, 1840.

[ccxxxiii] SH, 8 Dec, 1840.

[ccxxxiv] See as background: B Thompson, Imperial Vanities, Harper Collins, 2002.

[ccxxxv] SH, 26 Feb, 1840 – Wesleyan Society’s AGM; Comm Jnl & Adv, 7 Aug, 1839, 9 Sept, 1840; ADB, Vol 2, MUP, 1967, p.225.

[ccxxxvi] T&GN, Feb, 1842. See also Garrett’s August, 1842 letter ‘home’, in R Campbell, Rechabite History, 1911, p.113.

[ccxxxvii]. Campbell, as above, p.14.

[ccxxxviii]. Campbell, as above, p.16.

[ccxxxix]. Campbell, as above, p.33, letter to the Preston Temperance Advocate, 1836.

[ccxl]. Campbell, as above, p.22.

[ccxli]. Information here from pages 16-32 of Rechabite History; for Female Tents see p.100.

[ccxlii]. G Cole, ‘South Australia and Albert Districts’, Jubilee Book of IOR, 1885, p.190.

[ccxliii]. John Garrett, 23 Aug, 1842, to IOR, UK, in R Campbell, Rechabite History, Manchester, 1911, p.113-4.

[ccxliv]. Quotes from The Teetotaller & General Newspaper, 5, 26 Feb, 12 March, 1842.

[ccxlv] The Rechabite, (Victoria), 15 Sept, 1910, p.86.

[ccxlvi]. Campbell, as above, p.140.

[ccxlvii]. Teetotaller and General Newspaper, 28 Dec, 1842.

[ccxlviii]. T Hockings to T&GN, 4 Jan, 1843; formation of a Sydney ‘tent’ at SMH, 31 July, 1846. See below for further detail.

[ccxlix]. T&GN, 15 March, 1843.

[ccl]. T&GN, 26 April, 1843.

[ccli]. This wording from a photo of the original, now missing. A second photo shows the Tasmania District, No 79 was established in 1856. Low’s City of Sydney Directory for 1844-45 shows only a ‘Star Tent’ and a ‘Morning Star Tent’.

[cclii]. The T & GN, 25 Jan, 1843, taken from the Launceston Advertiser, 29 Dec, 1842.

[ccliii]. T Suttor, Hierarchy and Democracy in Australia 1788-1870, MUP, 1965, p.3.

[ccliv]. SMH, 24, 25 Feb, 1843.

[cclv]. from ‘Reminiscences of Alan Cameron’ held by Grafton Historical Society, nd, np.

[cclvi]. Thomas, 1962 reprint, as above, pp.72-3; SMH letters and reports, 14, 15, 16 June, 1843.

[cclvii] Anon, (SE Lees?), The Australian Orange Harmonist, Sydney, 1884, p.iv.

[cclviii] J Yarker, The Orange Society’, AQC, Vol 10, 1897.

[cclix] ‘Confidential Circulars’ were sent to all regiments – see 1 July, 1822, and 14 Nov, 1829, at General Order, No 522 of 31 Aug, 1835, mfm, ML NSW.

[cclx] According to a note at date 1856, ‘Introductory Observations’, on the Warrant Register, GOL of Ireland, Belfast, charters had become numerous since 1800 and ‘worked well until the dissolution of Grand Lodge in 1836 when they were called in and cancelled in obedience to an order from the Horse Guards.’

[cclxi] Sydney Monitor, 6 Jan, 1836.

[cclxii]. T Vertigan, The Orange Order in Victoria, LOI of V, 1979, p.10; D Kent, ‘The Orange Order in Early Colonial Australia’, The Push From the Bush, April, 1988, p.75.

[cclxiii]. Kent, as above, p.73.

[cclxiv] E Turner, ‘‘..Not Narrow Minded Bigots’: Proceedings of the Loyal Orange Institution of New South Wales, 1845-1895’, PhD, UNE, 2002, pp.28-31.

[cclxv] M Phelan, Orangeism Resurgent: Orange Lodges in England 1836-1876, LOI of England, nd, 2000?, p.1.

[cclxvi]. Anon, Protestant Proceedings Vindicated…(etc), Sydney, 1836, copy in ML.

[cclxvii]. B Stevenson, Let Brotherly Love Continue, Boolarong Press, 1994, p.6; see also the same author’s Stand Fast Together, Boolarong, 1996.

[cclxviii]. The APBA Rules appear at SMH, 16 Sept, 1842.

[cclxix] One version at The Protestant Standard, 1 May, 1869, referring to Brother Alexander, ‘the first Orangeman, who it was who brought the first warrant to this colony sewn up in his regimentals.’ Similar versions at R McGuffin, The Rise and Progress of Orangeism in NSW Vindicated, Sydney, 1872 – copy at ML; and W Freame, ‘How Orangeism Came to Australia’, orig in The Watchman Feb, 1910 – cutting in his Pressbooks, ML.

[cclxx] See Early History of the Loyal Orange Institution NSW, Grand Lodge of NSW, Sydney, 1926, for historical references and photos of officials in regalia.

[cclxxi]. See Port Phillip Patriot, 13 July, 1844. The first Australian clashes known to me where Catholic/Orange allegiances appear clearly involved are an assault by an ex-constable on an Orangeman (PPG, 6 Jan, 1844) and gangs fighting (PPG, 30 March, 1844), both in Port Phillip.

[cclxxii]. Taken from Argus, 10 Nov, 1846.

[cclxxiii] Although established in Sydney in 1844, the GUOOF story is related elsewhere in this text.

[cclxxiv]. A Watson, ‘Address’, The Australian Triple Links, 2 March, 1936, p.10.

[cclxxv]. J Smith ‘Odd Fellowship in Australasia’, in H Stillson, Ed, The Official History of Odd Fellowship, Fraternity Publ Co, 1908, p.515.

[cclxxvi]. C Watt & W Walmsley, A History of the Manchester Unity in Victoria, 1840-1971, MUIOOF Victoria, 1972, p.3. See my ‘Odd Fellows Ancient, Independent and United’, forthcoming.

[cclxxvii]. C Wilson, ‘Australian Oddfellowship – Past and Present’, Australian Triple Links, November, 1915, p.1.

[cclxxviii] ‘A Page from the History of Odd Fellowship’, The Odd Fellow, (USA), 3 Nov, 1847, p.47.

[cclxxix]. For biographical details of Moffitt, transported convict who became a very wealthy man, see Blainey, Odd Fellows, 1991, as above, Ch.1.

[cclxxx]. For example, C Watt & W Walmsley, 1972, as above, p.3, which drew on Moffrey, A Century of Oddfellowship, 1910, and others.

[cclxxxi]. No minute book from the 1840’s appears to have survived for any of the ‘friendlies’.

[cclxxxii]. ‘Garryowen’, Chronicles of Early Melbourne, Heritage, Melb, nd, p.616.

[cclxxxiii]. See Port Phillip Gazette, 17 June, 1 July, 1840 for notices of founding meetings; 28 Jan, 1843 for underselling, and 1 March, 1843, for purchase from Arden’s creditors; J Howlett Ross, A History of the Manchester Unity (IOOF) in Victoria, 1840-1910, Melb, 1911, pp.5-10; Watt & Walmsley, 1972, as above, pp.3-7; various of the Hunter River Gazette. See also PPG, 22 June, 1844, and later refs in text for Strode litigation.

[cclxxxiv]. J Smith, ‘Odd Fellowship in Australasia’, in The Official History of Odd Fellowship..(etc), Boston, 1907, p.516.

[cclxxxv]. The South Australian Oddfellows Magazine, No 2, Oct, 1843, p.1. A meeting of the ‘ancient and honourable order of Odd Fellows’ had been called in September, 1838, at the ‘Heart and Hand Assembly Rooms’ in Adelaide, but nothing else appears before the October, 1840 meeting.

[cclxxxvi] See J Burns, An Historical Sketch of the Independent Order of OddFellows, MU, Heywood, Manchester, 1846, pp.41-2 for some details.

[cclxxxvii]. Anon, Revised Odd-Fellowship Illustrated…(etc).., 18th edn, 1891, p.24, quoting The Manual of Odd-Fellowship of AB Grosh, nd, p.40.

[cclxxxviii]. J Wilkinson, The Friendly Society Movement, Longmans Green, London, 1891, p.33 quoting ‘Spry’s History, p.55.’.

[cclxxxix]. J Schofield, ‘The History and Progress of Oddfellowship’, Oddfellows’ Magazine, Oct, 1887, p.232.

[ccxc]. A Watson, An Account of an Investigation of the Sickness and Mortality of the IOOF, MU, 1893-1897, IOOF, MU, Manchester, 1903, p.v.

[ccxci]. South Australian Odd Fellows Magazine, Jan 1845, p.38.

[ccxcii] Bent’s News,(Sydney), 11 May, 1839.

[ccxciii]. The Australian, 7 Oct, 1842.

[ccxciv]. Colonial Times, 22, 29 August, 5, 12 September, 1843.

[ccxcv]. Colonial Times, 14 Sept, 1844; 26 Aug, 9 Sept, 1845.

[ccxcvi]. SA Odd Fellows Magazine, July, 1844, p.134.

[ccxcvii]. SA Odd Fellows Magazine, Jan, 1844, p.85.

[ccxcviii]. SMH, 20 Dec, 1844.

[ccxcix]. ‘In the Good Old Days’, Manchester Unity Journal of NSW, March, 1940, referring to 9 June, 1845.

[ccc]. Morning Chronicle, 22 March, 1845.

[ccci]. (Aust) Morning Chronicle, 22 and 26 March, 1845.

[cccii]. ‘Odd Fellows Dinner’, South Australian Register, 2 Jan, 1845; South Australian Odd Fellows Magazine, Jan, 1845, p.37.

[ccciii] A)MC, 17 Jan, 1844.

[ccciv] See editorial of the (A)MC, 12 April, 1845. See PPH, 13 Oct, 1848 its resolution.

[cccv] See The Australian, 30 Sept, 1845; AMC, 27 Aug, & 1 Oct, 1845.

[cccvi]. See E Turner, 2002, pp.58-59.

[cccvii] Campbell, as above, p.148.

[cccviii] Aust) Morning Chronicle, 23 April, 1845.

[cccix] Note 62, Vol III, The Letters of John Bede Polding, 3 Vols, Sisters of the Good Smaritan, 1998, p.245.

[cccx] M Diamond, Creative Meddler: The Life and Fantasies of Charles St Julian, MUP, 1990, p.15. Minutes of AHCG believed now at St Mary’s Cathedral Archives.

[cccxi] See SMH, 25 Nov, 1845; (Aust) Morning Chronicle, 26 Nov, 1845.

[cccxii] The Sentinel, 1 Jan, 1846.

[cccxiii]. (Aust) MC, 26 Nov, 1845.

[cccxiv]. The Sentinel, 5 March, 1845.

[cccxv]. The Sentinel, 19 March, 1845.

[cccxvi]. A Sullivan, New Ireland, London, 1878, p.33.

[cccxvii]. The Odd Fellow, 25 Oct, 1 Nov 1845

[cccxviii]. The Odd Fellow, 13 Dec, 1845.

[cccxix]. The Odd Fellow, 10 Jan, 1846.

[cccxx]. Australian, 7 Oct, 1845.

[cccxxi]. SAR, 21 Feb, 1846.

[cccxxii]. Australasian Morning Chronicle, 28 Feb, 1846.

[cccxxiii]. SMH, 15 April, 1846.

[cccxxiv]. Aust, 28 Feb, SMH, 15 April, 1846; SAR, 16 May, 1846.

[cccxxv]. The Odd Fellow and Independent Citizen, 7 March, 1846.

[cccxxvi]. Aust Journal, 3 Dec, 1846. See also for 22 Dec, 1846, and Argus, 11 Dec, 1846.

[cccxxvii]. MM, 7 Feb, 1846.

[cccxxviii]. Last two quotes from same report, SMH, 27 March, 1846.

[cccxxix]. SMH, 1 & 3 April, 1846.

[cccxxx]. Diamond, as above, p.16.

[cccxxxi]. See SMH, & Morning Chronicle, 4 July, 1846 for refs to the offending articles at 18 & 25 June; see SMH, 6 July, 1846, for announcement of that years hurling match, and The Sentinel, 2 July, 1846, for announcement of Orange celebration, both to be on 13 July, 1846, the 12th being a Sunday.

[cccxxxii]. Melbourne Argus, 14 July, 1846. The Melbourne Argus began operations 1st of June, 1846, became The Argus 15 Sept, 1848.

[cccxxxiii]. Melbourne Argus, 2 Feb, 1847.

[cccxxxiv]. PPH, 10 March, PPG, 25 March, 1840.

[cccxxxv] PPH, 6 Jan, 1843.

[cccxxxvi]. PPH, 13 Jan, 1843.

[cccxxxvii] PPG, 7 Jan, 1843, PPH, 6 Jan, 1843 (incl Editorial)

[cccxxxviii]. PPH, 14 May, 1841.

[cccxxxix]. PPH, 15 June, 9 July, 1841.

[cccxl] PPH, 10 Jan, 1843.

[cccxli]. Portland Mercury, 25 Jan, 1843.

[cccxlii]. HG Turner, History of the Colony of Victoria, 1904, quoted in T Vertigan, The Orange Order in Victoria, Tripart, 1979, p.4.

[cccxliii].For ‘Lang’ and ‘Kerr’ biogs, ADB, Vol 1, pp.76-83; pp.51-2. For Melbourne events, see PPH, 14, 17 March, 18, 28 April, 5 May, 20 June, in particular. See ‘Garryowen’ (Finn), Chronicles of Early Melbourne, p.621 for another ‘Orange’ version.

[cccxliv]. JD Lang, Reminiscences of My Life and Times, Heinemann, 1972 (orig 1876?), p.200.

[cccxlv]. See PPG, 21, 28 June, 15 July, 1843; ADB, Vol 1, 1788-1850, p.269.

[cccxlvi]. See M Sullivan, Men and Women of Port Phillip, Hale & Iremonger, 1985, espec pp.72-7.

[cccxlvii]. Portland Mercury, 19, 26 July, 1843.

[cccxlviii]. PPH 25 July, 12 September, 3 November, particularly.

[cccxlix]. PPH, 8, 12 March, 7 May, 1844; PPG, 22 June, 1844; see also ‘The Patriot’ and ‘Libel’, at PPG, 30 March, 1844.

[cccl]. PPH, 9 Jan, 20 Feb 1844.

[cccli]. PPG, 24 July, 1844 for handover; for the Irish Constitution lodge, see PPH 9 June, 11 July, 1843.

[ccclii]. PPG, 30 Oct, 1844; 24 Dec, 1845.

[cccliii]. PPH, 5 Jan, 1844 (x2); PPG, 6 Jan, 1844.

[cccliv]. PPH, 12 Jan, 17 May, 26 July, 1844.

[ccclv] Thornley, 1989, as above, pp.5-6.

[ccclvi]. PPH, 9, 2 Jan, 1844.

[ccclvii]. T Vertigan, as above, pp.9,30.

[ccclviii]. PPH, 9 Jan, 1844, where also see another par on the ‘Grand Protestant Confederation of Australia Felix’.

[ccclix]. For comment on this notice see PPH, 11 June, 1844.

[ccclx]. PPH, 11 June, 1844.

[ccclxi]. PPH, 5, 9, 12 July, PPG, 13 July, 1844.

[ccclxii]. PPH, 12 July, 1844. See ‘Garryowen’, Chronicles, p.620.

[ccclxiii]. R McGuffin, Rise and Progress of Orangeism in NSW Vindicated, 1872 – copy at 267/M, ML, NSWSL. See Hezlitt story of initiation in 1844 by ‘Mr Carr’ from Melbourne, Protestant Standard, 28 July, 1883.

[ccclxiv]. PPH, 16 July, 1844.

[ccclxv]. PPH, 4 Oct, 1844.

[ccclxvi]. PPG, 9, 30 Oct, 1844; PPH, 29 Nov, 1844.

[ccclxvii]. PPH. 30 Jan 1845.

[ccclxviii]. PPH, 4,7,11 March, 1845. Such ‘fire’ is another fraternal and military tradition.

[ccclxix]. PPG, 15 March, 1845.

[ccclxx]. PPH, 11 Feb, 25 March, 1845.

[ccclxxi]. Portland Gazette, 10 June, 1845.

[ccclxxii]. People’s Gazette, 1 April, 1845.

[ccclxxiii]. PPH, 10 April, 13 May & 21 Oct, 1 July, 1845.

[ccclxxiv]. PPH, 10, 11, 15 July, 1845.

[ccclxxv]. Vertigan, 1979, as above, p.15.

[ccclxxvi]. PPG, 3 Oct, 1845; see ‘Jubilee of the Order in Victoria’, Oddfellows Magazine, (UK), March, 1891 for m’ship number.

[ccclxxvii]. PPH, 11 Sept, 1845; 13 Jan, 1846; PPG, 7 March, 1846.

[ccclxxviii]. Vertigan, 1979, as above, pp.22-23.

[ccclxxix]. PPG, 15 July, 1846.

[ccclxxx]. PPH, 14 July, 1846.

[ccclxxxi]. For example, in quoted police reports in The Courier, (Hobart), 1 Aug, 1846.

[ccclxxxii]. PPG, 18 July, 1846; see further King letter PPG, 22 July, 1846.

[ccclxxxiii]. PPH, 27 Oct, 1846.

[ccclxxxiv]. These are the claims contained in an unpublished ms quoted by Vertigan, 1979, p.9.

[ccclxxxv]. The Times, 25 June, 1846, quoted PPH, 27 Oct, 1846; PPG, 19 June, 1847; for the suggestion about Willis see Vertigan, as above, p.7.

[ccclxxxvi]. Argus, 21 July, 1846.

[ccclxxxvii]. PPH, 14 July, 1846.

[ccclxxxviii]. PPH, 21 July, 1846.

[ccclxxxix]. PPH, 28 July, 1846.

[cccxc]. PPH, 4, 5 Aug, 1846.

[cccxci]. See Amos, 1988, as above, p.19 for some details.

[cccxcii]. SMH, 22 July, 1846; also see Early History Loyal Orange Institution NSW, 1926, pp.23-5.

[cccxciii] Lepper, ‘The Orange Society’, as above, p.262.

[cccxciv]. SMH, 15 Oct, 1846.

[cccxcv]. SMH, 14 Oct, 1846.

[cccxcvi]. MM, 23, 28 Oct, 1846.

[cccxcvii]. See debate and votes, SMH, 22, 24, 28 Oct, 1846. The Bill is printed in full in MM, 4 Nov, 1846.

[cccxcviii]. The Odd Fellows Magazine, (MU), June, 1828, p.62.

[cccxcix]. Minutes, 28 Jan, 1847, L Union Lodge, MUIOOF, in AB5363-65, Uni of Newcastle Archives. See NSW Manchester Unity Odd Fellows Magazine, 16 Aug, 1899 for description of event.

[cd]. PPH, 24 Sept 1846.

[cdi]. See Blainey, 1991, as above, p.15.

[cdii]. Argus, 6 Nov, 1846.

[cdiii]. Argus, 6 Nov, 1846.

[cdiv]. See both in The Argus, 6 Nov, 1846; see ‘Notice’ in PPH, 27 Oct, 1846.

[cdv]. Aust Jnl, 17 Nov, 1846.

[cdvi]. Argus, 28, 30 April, 1848.

[cdvii]. See Argus, 8, 22 and 29 Dec, PPG, 23 Dec, 1846 Strode is reported as having gone to Sydney to begin a new paper the Mechanics Advocate.

[cdviii]. Argus, 9 Feb, 1847.

[cdix]. Portland Guardian, 25 Jan, 1847.

[cdx]. Duke of York displayed a new banner in May – PPG, 15 May, 1847; Argus, 8 Oct, PPH, 5, 7 Oct, x2, PPG, 8 Oct, 1847.

[cdxi]. PPG, 10 Jan, 1848.

[cdxii]. Argus, 26 May, 1848.

[cdxiii]. Argus, 25 Jan, 18 April, 1848.

[cdxiv]. PPH. 27 July, 1848.

[cdxv] By 1998 NSW and Qld were the only States with GUOOF lodges. The Qld operations having come under administration from Sydney, both came under control from Melbourne when GUFS merged with Australian Unity in 2005.

[cdxvi]. Deputy Grand Master Ridley at ‘Diamond Jubilee Celebrations’, The Grand United Order of Oddfellows Magazine, September, 1908, p.15.

[cdxvii] The Magazine, No 100, March, 1908, p.8; see also Sept, 1908, p.15. This is not the way other societies have measured their existence. Government records show that the ‘Sydney District of the United Grand Order of Oddfellows’ [sic] was registered on 7 June, 1848, 4 months before the date on the Dispensation referred to by Brother Herron. A MUIOOF memoir asserts establishment of GUOOF in 1844, and an 1891 letter-writer claimed that the originating date of 1844 and the names of the 5 founding members had been perpetuated ‘for all time’ in a memorial erected ‘in the hall of Sydney District.'[cdxvii] Accessible at the time he was writing, this plaque is now apparently lost, as apparently are all early Sydney District records, for GU and other Orders.

[cdxviii]. PPH, 31 August, 1848. This no of lodges matches the later 1915 number given earlier.

[cdxix]. SAR, 23 Aug, 27 Dec, 1848; PPG, 12 Sept, 14 19 Nov, 1850.

[cdxx] PPH, 22 Aug, 1848 for report of the Brisbane lodge.

[cdxxi] PPH, 9 Feb, MMH, 13, 15 March, 25 May, 1849.

[cdxxii] MMH, 22 Aug, 19 Sept, 18 Oct, 1849.

[cdxxiii] MMH, 13 Nov, 1849.

[cdxxiv]. PPG, 6, 13 22 Nov, 1849.

[cdxxv] Kerr was appointed editor of a re-badged Gazette in 1851 by McCombie but that paper collapsed when he, Kerr, was then appointed Melbourne’s Town Clerk.

[cdxxvi]. Freemans Journal, 3 Oct, 1850, setting out terms of ‘Brown and others v Shaw and others’, Chancery Court, Durham, UK.

[cdxxvii]. ‘Garryowen’ as above, p.245.

[cdxxviii]. Freeman’s Journal, 11 July, 1850; ‘Garryowen’, as above, p.914.

[cdxxix]. Colonial Times, 9, 10 Aug, 1849; The Irish Exile and Freedom’s Advocate, 3 Aug, 1850.

[cdxxx]. The Britannia and Trades Advocate, 3 August, 1848. Denial of membership at end of editorial ‘Vicar-General’s Meeting’, 7 March, 1850.

[cdxxxi]. The Britannia, 19 August, 1847.

[cdxxxii]. The Britannia and Trades Advocate, 27 May, 1847.

[cdxxxiii]. The Britannia and Trades Advocate, 12 August, 1847.

[cdxxxiv]. The Britannia and Trades Advocate, 14, 21 Oct, 1847.

[cdxxxv] Tasmanian Colonist, 28 Aug, 1851, reprined The Empire, 10 Sept, 1851.

[cdxxxvi] The Empire, 8, 19 March, 1851.

[cdxxxvii] Freemans Journal, 4 July, 1850.

[cdxxxviii] Geelong Advertiser, 23 Sept, 1853. Nothing is known of the ‘Order of Independent Bachelors’.

[cdxxxix]. SMH, 15 Oct, 1852.

[cdxl]. Mudgee Liberal, 22 Nov, 1861.

[cdxli] (Hobarton) Mercury, 25 Oct, 1854.

[cdxlii] Green & Cromwell, 1984, p.xiii.

[cdxliii] Illustrated Australian News, 20 Sept, 1866, quoted in M Cannon, Life in the Cities, Vol 3, p.262.

[cdxliv]. J Lascelles’ evidence, in Friendly Societies: Report of the Royal Commission, Vic Parl Papers, No 44, 1876, p.5.

[cdxlv]. D Green & L Cromwell, Mutual Aid or Welfare State, Allen & Unwin, 1984, pp.xv-xviii.

[cdxlvi]. J Inglis, Our Australian Cousins, Macmillan, London, 1880, p.178.

[cdxlvii]. D Green and L Cromwell, 1984, as above, pp.217-220.

[cdxlviii]. B Kelleher, ‘Friendly Societies in the Australian Economy’, The Australian Quarterly, Sept, 1962, p.53.

[cdxlix]. B Kelleher, The ANA Its Aims and Influence on the Australian Scene, 1963, pamph, p.3.

[cdl]. Bathurst Times, 28 Jan, 1871.

[cdli]. Ovens and Murray Advertiser, 9 Nov, 1872; the earliest noted Chinese presence in a parade is at Castlemaine at the visit of Sir Charles Darling – Ill Melb Post, 24 March, 1864, p.11; see also my web notes on the ‘Alleged Chinese Freemasons in Australia’. For the rough treatment see Bendigo Advertiser, 19 Dec, 1862; for the ‘oath’ see Bendigo Advertiser, 11 July, 1861.

[cdlii] For his initiation into the ‘Loyal Albert Lodge of the MUIOOF, at Moonee Ponds’ see Argus, 23 Dec, 1864. For his death see Illustrated Melbourne Post, Jan, 1865, p.3.

[cdliii] (N’cle) Daily Pilot, 10 Nov, 1877.

[cdliv]. Para in Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal from Pleasant Creek, 20 March, 1872.

[cdlv].’Orangeism’, PPH, 9 Dec, 1847; PPG, 31 Jan, 1849.

[cdlvi] See Wilkinson, 1891, as above, pp.40-42.

[cdlvii] J Pearn, In the Capacity of a Surgeon, Brisbane, 1988.

[cdlviii] Sydney Gazette, 28 November, 1829.

[cdlix] WA Miles, 8 June, 1842, ‘Minutes of Evidence Taken Before the Immigration Committee’, NSW Leg Council V & P, 1842-55, p.24.

[cdlx] The Britannia, 6 April, 1848.

[cdlxi] As previous.

[cdlxii] Stevenson, 1994, as above, p.4.

[cdlxiii] B Stevenson, ‘Let Brotherly Love Continue’ A History of the Protestant Alliance Friendly Society in Queensland, Boolarong, 1994, p.4.

[cdlxiv]. Braidwood Observer, 25 May, 1860.

[cdlxv] Stevenson, as above, p.5.

[cdlxvi]. Aust, 7 Oct, 1842.

[cdlxvii]. Sentinel, 17 Sept, 1845, referring to MUIOOF in Newcastle.

[cdlxviii]. SMH, 6 July, 1846; the paper’s long report of the event, 17 July, stresses the point.

[cdlxix] Morning Chronicle, 5 Oct, 1844.

[cdlxx]. ‘Dispenser’s Report’, Annual Report, Sydney District NSW IOOFMU, December, 1866, p.20.

[cdlxxi]. MM, 28 Jan, 1846; see also AMC, 12 April, 1845; 18 April, 1846; Sentinel, 5 Feb, 1846; SMH 11 Nov, 1846.

[cdlxxii]. ‘Australian News for Home Readers’, Illustrated Melbourne Post, Nov, 1865, p.7.

[cdlxxiii]. P Riggs, A Century of Caring and Beyond, Kempsey District Hospital, 1981, p.7, quoting the Macleay Chronicle of 18 Nov, 1880.

[cdlxxiv]. Wynyard Times, 29 Jan, 1861.

[cdlxxv]. See SMH, 5 Nov, 1846.

[cdlxxvi]. See SMH, 28 March, 1846 for the example of the Colonial Hospital at Windsor.

[cdlxxvii]. Minutes, for 8 Feb, 1848.

[cdlxxviii]. Minutes, 8 July, 1867.

[cdlxxix]. Manning River News, 30 March, 1867.

[cdlxxx]. See my Origins of the Hunter Labour Movement, 1999, orig a Chapter in C Hunter (Ed), Riverchange, Newcastle Region Public Library, 1998.

[cdlxxxi]. Author’s photocopy.

[cdlxxxii]. GUOOF ‘Star of Eaglehawk Lodge’, Minutes for April, 1867.

[cdlxxxiii] The Argus, 6 June, 1862.

[cdlxxxiv]. Cromwell & Green, as above, p.62.

[cdlxxxv] Report from Ballarat, in Geelong Advertiser, 21 August, 1854.

[cdlxxxvi] Green & Cromwell, as above, p.144.

[cdlxxxvii] Dr Belgrave to the 1883 Royal Commission, in Green & Cromwell, p.143.

[cdlxxxviii] Folder, ‘Friendly Societies’, Ephemera Collection, Victoria State Library.

[cdlxxxix]. Evening News, 14 August, 1886.

[cdxc] Quoted at NSW Manchester Unity Oddfellows Magazine, 16 Aug, 1899, p.11.

[cdxci] The Britannia and Trades Advocate, 19 Feb, 1846.

[cdxcii] L Bruck, ‘The Present State of the Medical Profession in Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand’, The Australasian Medical Gazette, March, 1893, p.96.

[cdxciii]. ‘Appendix to Dr Belgrave’s Evidence’in Appendices to Report of the Royal Commission…(into) Friendly Societies, NSW, Government Printer, Sydney, 1883, p.15

[cdxciv] Ad from ‘Dr RW Johnson’, recorded in Minutes, PAFS ‘Victoria L, No 3’, West Australia, at 31 May, 1927.

[cdxcv]. ‘In Praise of Oddfellowship’, NSW MUOFF Magazine, 14 Sept, 1899, p.10.

[cdxcvi]. NSW Manchester Unity Oddfellows Magazine, 16 Aug, 1899, p.7.

[cdxcvii]. Magazine of the Grand United Order of Oddfellows, (NSW), Sept, 1881, pp.19-20.

[cdxcviii]. Magazine, as previous, Sept, 1881, p.15.

[cdxcix] A Richards, The Centennial Story The History of Freemasonry in Quuensland..1859-1959, UGLQ, 1959,p.73.

[d]. Report and Proceedings of the Quarterly Meeting of the GM & Board of Directors, of the IOOF,MU, 9th July, 1869, 1869, p.2.

[di]. Quoted in Friendly Societies Gazette, 24 Dec, 1931, p.19.

[dii] K Cramp, From Jubilee to Diamond Jubilee, UGL NSW, 1949, p.67.

[diii]. The AMP’s Actuary and Gen Manager in 1893, quoted in W Short, Benjamin Short 1833-1912: A Migrant with a Mission, 1994, p.XXX.

[div] EPP, 13 Sept, 1898.

[dv] Undated letter in Kempsey PAFS Archives at Kempsey Museum, un-catalogued.

[dvi] See my detailed discussion of this in the HRD in ‘Changing the Record – Setting the Scene 2’ in Riverland Newcastle Region Public Library, 1998, pp.89-92.

[dvii]. SAR, 20 Sept, 15 Nov, 1848.

[dviii]. S Tilse, The Role of the Loyal Heart and Hand Lodge, Nundle, 1866-1900, BA Hons, ANU, 1987, p.8, p.17.

[dix]. Mackay, History of Bendigo, 1889, plus my own research.

[dx] S Yelland, ‘The Actor is the Bishop’, The Push from the Bush, April 1985 (No 19), pp.34-43.

[dxi]. Minute Book, Garibaldi Lodge, MUIOOF, VSL, MS11933, 2478/3(b).

[dxii]. SAR, 25 Aug, 1847.

[dxiii] Australian Masonic News, 21 Jan, 1865, p.21.

[dxiv]. Braidwood Observer, 27 Aug, 1859.

[dxv]. Gippsland Mercury, 22 Sept, 1870.

[dxvi]. Detail from ‘The Dedication Ceremony of the Masonic Lodge Room in the Charlie Napier Hotel..(etc)’ pamphlet, 1992, Sovereign Hill Museum.

[dxvii]. ‘Original Correspondence’, The (Araluen) Observer & Miner’s Advocate, 27 Aug, 1859; Maitland Mercury, 11 Oct, 1879.

[dxviii]. Grand Goulburn p.233.

[dxix] Opening speech at first lodge meeting, Brisbane, 1871, quoted at Brisbane Courier, 1 Jan, 1872.

[dxx]. For 1874 Fete see ‘Grand Lodge Session, 1874’, The Australasian Templar, May, 1874, p.8. T Parker, The History of the Independent Order of Good Templars, New York, 1881, pp.169, 199, 215, 236-7.

[dxxi]. Items at NMH, 3, 8 April, 1880, provide a brief overview of a tense standoff.

[dxxii] (N’cle) Daily Pilot, 13 Nov, 1877.

[dxxiii]. LM, 15 June, 1894.

[dxxiv] NMH, 11 Nov, 1878.

[dxxv]. Constitution of the Daughters of Temperance Under the National and Grand Divisions of Australasia, 1869, at NSW SL ML 178.06-D.

[dxxvi]. Audrey Oldfield ?, ‘Women Suffrage in Australia, 1902’, on Sunshine for Women website, for Womens History Month, 2003.

[dxxvii]. G Butland, Letters From Grenfell, Sydney UP, 1971, p.26. Following quotes from pp.40,66-72,81.

[dxxviii]. Northern Miner, 3 March, 26 May, 11 July, 26 September, 1877.

[dxxix]. Northern Miner, 3 Nov, 26 May, 1877.

[dxxx]. Northern Miner, 23 June, 1877.

[dxxxi]. Northern Miner, 29 Aug, 1877.

[dxxxii]. Northern Miner, 27 June, 1877.

[dxxxiii]. Northern Miner, 14 July, 1877.

[dxxxiv]. Northern Miner, 18 July, 15, 18 Aug, letter from ‘Cosmopolitan’, 1 Sept, 1877.

[dxxxv]. Northern Miner, 17 Oct, 1877. For Palmer letter see 18 Aug, 1877.

[dxxxvi]. Turner, 2002, PhD, as above, p.xv.

[dxxxvii]. Turner, 2002, as above, p.xvi.

[dxxxviii] M Campbell, ‘A Successful Experiment’ No More: The Intensification of Religious Bigotry in Eastern Australia, 1865-1885’, Humanities Research, Vol XII, No 1, 2005, p.1.

[dxxxix]. P O’Connor, The Hibernian Society of NSW, 1880-1980, HACBS (NSW), 1980, p.36.

[dxl] For example, N Turner, Sinews of Sectarian Warfare? – State Aid in New South Wales, 1836-1862, ANUP, 1972, espec Ch’s 5 & 6.

[dxli] The Empire, 13 Oct, 1851.

[dxlii]. The Ballarat Courier, 7 February, 1870, reporting ‘Overseas News’, from ‘London, 15 December, 1869’.

[dxliii] Sullivan, as above, Chs 6-9, transportation at p.103.

[dxliv]. SAR, 10 Nov, 1847.

[dxlv]. SAR, 26 Aug, 1848, quoting the British Banner.

[dxlvi] A O’Brien, ‘The 1859 Election on the Ovens’, PhD, Deakin U, 2004, p.40.

[dxlvii]. Amos, 1988, as above, p.19.

[dxlviii]. McGuffin, 1872; ‘Petition from Australia Felix Lodge No 697, 14 Oct, 1853, to GM England, for Appt of Prov GM for Victoria’, 21/C/11, in UGL Museum, London.

[dxlix] G Phillips, The First Hundred Years, 1824-1924, of Leinster Marine Lodge of Australia, 1924, Sydney, p.47.

[dl] See The Age, 19 December, 1854 for evidence and verdict.

[dli] W Bate, Lucky City, as above, p.61.

[dlii] See ‘Riot at Ballarat Report of the Board – Witness No 55, Wm Jackson’, p.18, in Anderson, 1969 as above.

[dliii] Ballarat Times, quoted in Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer, 14 Dec, 1854.

[dliv] W Howitt, Land, Labor and Gold, Boston, 1855, p.441.

[dlv] A. O’Brien, ‘The 1859 Election on the Ovens’, PhD, 2004, Deakin U, p.30.

[dlvi]. SMH, 16 July, 1853.

[dlvii] J Blee, Eureka, Exisle, Little Red Book Series, 2007, p.83.

[dlviii]. Amos, 1988, as above, p.17.

[dlix] The Argus, quoted in The Empire, 6 December, 1854.

[dlx] Daniel and Potts, ‘American Republicanism and the Disturbances on the Victorian Goldfields’, Historical Studies, April, 1968, No 50, p.145. In going to the issue of ‘Americans’ as spies for the authorities, Daniel and Pott in 1968 concluded that for the most prominent, it seems unlikely. They do, unfortunately, let one possibility called ‘Nelson’ or ‘Neilson’ slip out of their text unexamined, especially as there was rumoured to be a cannon on its way from Melbourne for the Stockaders. A home-made cannon was actually used at Minmi, near Newcastle, during a coal miner’s strike in 1861, where, again, an alleged ‘American’ police spy called ‘Nelson’ was implicated.

[dlxi] L Churchward, Australia and America 1788-1972, APCOL, 1979, p.51, quoting an Argus editorial, 4 May, 1852.

[dlxii] See ‘Report from the Select Committee upon Mr JFV Fitzgerald’s Case’, p.13, and ‘Copies of Correspondence Respecting American Citizens’, p.2, in H Anderson (ed), ‘Eureka’ Victorian Parliamentary Papers Votes and Proceedings 1854-1867, Hill of Content, Melb, 1969. See also Serle’s assessment of these matters, 1963, as above, p.174.

[dlxiii] Argus, 25 Jan, 1855.

[dlxiv] Geelong Advertiser, The Argus, 17 August, 1854.

[dlxv]. J Lynch, The Story of Eureka Stockade, ACTS, Melb, 193_, p.29.

[dlxvi] Conversation with the author, September, 2007.

[dlxvii] A merchant in Australia before the 1850’s, Kenworthy was later a well-known Freemason and Surgeon-General in Florida. See Potts and Potts, Young America and Australian Gold, UQP, 1974, espec. pp.181-198.

[dlxviii] For Cr Annand, the Bendigo Advertiser, and ‘The Bayonet Policy of Victoria’ from The Age, 1 Dec, both quoted in The Empire, 7 Dec, 1854.

[dlxix] ‘The Riots at Ballaarat’, The Empire, 8 Dec, 1854.

[dlxx]. E Ross, A History of the Miners’ Federation of Australia, Australasian Coal & Shale Employees’ Federation, 1970, p.97; my PhD thesis, ‘Carnival, Discipline and Labour History’, Newcastle Uni, 1994, espec Ch 2, & various GUOOF records.

[dlxxi] F Cusack, Bendigo: A History, Heinemann, 1973, pp.80-1.

[dlxxii] Cusack, 1973, p.170.

[dlxxiii] Quoted by Serle, 1963, as above, p.211, fn.

[dlxxiv] Serle, as above, p.250. See Serle, pp.250-261, and his other ‘Sectarian’ references.

[dlxxv] For US background, see H Stillson (ed), The Official History of Odd Fellowship, Boston, 1908.

[dlxxvi] Melbourne Herald quoted in The Empire, 6 Aug, 1851.

[dlxxvii]. The (Hobarton) Mercury, 16 23, 27 December, 1854. See also 25 and 28 October, 1854.

[dlxxviii] GS Cohen, to 14th AGM, AIOOF, Geelong, Sept, 1867, p.13.

[dlxxix] GM Batcheldor, as above, p.11.

[dlxxx] The colour-bar in US societies adversely affected other fraternal societies with international connections, eg the AOF and the Good Templars.

[dlxxxi]. C Wilson, ‘Australian Oddfellowship-Past and Present’, Pt II, Australian Triple Links, Dec, 1915, p.1. See my notes on ‘Odd Fellows in Australia, espec the AIOOF’ elsewhere.

[dlxxxii] Copy with author, original believed at State Library of Victoria.

[dlxxxiii]. Argus, 22 Nov, 1854 25 Jan, 1855; A Steane, Freemasonic Records, 1854-1957, nd, p.11, copy at Sovereign Hill Museum. This ‘French’ Lodge became the ‘Ballarat Lodge, English Constitution’ in 1857. The emerging story may show its source was not French but English – see A Prescott, ‘The Study of Freemasonry as a New Academic Discipline’, 2007, p.12.

[dlxxxiv] Freemasons Magazine & Masonic Mirror, 16, 30 July, 1859; Ballarat Star, 27 Dec, 1861; Australian Masonic News, Melb, Dec, 1864, p.10.

[dlxxxv] ‘American v. Irish Freemasonry’, Freemasons Magazine & Masonic Mirror, 17 March, 1860, p.212, for example.

[dlxxxvi] A Prescott (ed), Marking Well, Lewis, 2006.

[dlxxxvii] ‘Bro Percy Wells’, Freemasons Magazine & Masonic Mirror, (London), 17 Mar, 1860, p.212.

[dlxxxviii] Editorial of Melbourne Masonic Journal, quoted at FM&MM, 25 July, 1863, p.57.

[dlxxxix] Freemasons Magazine and Masonic Register, 16 June, 1860, 20 Apr (p.310), 23 Nov, (p.416), 21 Dec, 1861 (p.492)

[dxc] Aust Masonic News, 28 May, 1864.

[dxci] Aust Masonic News, 30 April, 1864, p.25.

[dxcii] Aust Masonic News, 30 April, 1864, pp.26-27.

[dxciii] ‘Correspondence’, FM&MM, 23 Sept, 1865, pp.247-250.

[dxciv] O’Brien, 2004, as above, p.15.

[dxcv] O’Brien, 2004, p.140, p.163.

[dxcvi] O’Brien, 2004, p.133.

[dxcvii]. Perth Gazette, 1 April, 1864.

[dxcviii]. B Hodge, Sunset of Gold Sofala and Wattle Flat, 1860-1914, Cambaroora Star, 1988, espec from p.41.

[dxcix] Hodge, 1988, as above, p.43.

[dc] SMH, 31 March, 1860, and subs.

[dci] ‘McIntyre, William, 1805-1870’, Australian Dictionary of Biography Online Edition, Nov, 2008.

[dcii] W Bate, Lucky City, MUP, 2003 (orig 1978), p.138.

[dciii]. A Deakin, The Crisis in Victorian Politics, 1879-1881, MUP, 1951, p.72.

[dciv] M Pawsey, The Popish Plot, Studies in the Christian Movement, 1983, pp.5-9.

[dcv]. Letter from ‘Henry Fergie to James Fergie, his father’ in The Oddfellows’ Magazine, (MU, UK) April, 1868, p.375.

[dcvi] Stevenson, as above, p.14.

[dcvii]. R Travis, The Phantom Fenians of New South Wales, Kangaroo Press, 1986, p.19. See ‘Lecture on Fenianism’, Newcastle Chronicle, 25 April, 1868, on related clashes in New Zealand.

[dcviii]. See R Travers, The Phantom Fenians of New South Wales, Kangaroo Press, 1986.

[dcix]. K Amos, Fenians in Australia, 1865-1880, UNSWPress, 1988, p.41.

[dcx] The Age, 17 Dec, 1878.

[dcxi] I Jones, ‘A New View of Ned Kelly’, in Ned Kelly Man and Myth, Cassell, 1968, p.163; for Sherritt-Orangeism see p.64 and K Dunstan, Saint Ned, Methuen, 1980, p.46, where for pic of sash see, p.94.

[dcxii] I Jones, The Fatal Friendship, Lothian, 2003 edn, p.1.

[dcxiii] Jones, 2003, as above, p.157.

[dcxiv] See E Penzig, Bushrangers – Heroes or Villains, Tranter, 1988, p.178, p.186.

[dcxv] M Shennan, A Biographical Dictionary of the Ovens and Townsmen of Beechworth, 2004, self-published.

[dcxvi] The Age, 2 Nov, 1878.

[dcxvii] The Age, 23 Nov, 1878.

[dcxviii] The Age, 25 Jan, 1868.

[dcxix] The Age, 22 April, 1870.

[dcxx] The Age, 26 Feb, 1878.

[dcxxi] The Age, 6 Feb, 1878.

[dcxxii] The Age, 19, 23 Nov, 1878.

[dcxxiii] The Age, 17 Dec, 1878.

[dcxxiv] One example of a Masonic funeral interdicted by Bishop of Sydney at FM&MM, 28 April, 1860, p.388.

[dcxxv]. Aust Prot Banner, 13 June, 1868, p.4.

[dcxxvi] Prot Standard, 12 June, 1869, p. for example.

[dcxxvii]. Wingham Chronicle, 1, 8 March, 1899.

[dcxxviii] APB, 12 September, 1868

[dcxxix] PS, 23 Nov, 1869.

[dcxxx]. SMH, 23 Jan, 1868. See E Turner, as above, p.134.

[dcxxxi]. Eric Turner, 2002, p.ix, quoting Lyons.

[dcxxxii] Protestant Standard, No 1, 1 May, 1869, p.5, attacking both Catholicism and Mahometanism.

[dcxxxiii] Protestant Standard, 1 May, 1869, p.9.

[dcxxxiv] Protestant Standard, 22 May, 1869.

[dcxxxv]. Australasian Protestant Banner, 13, 27 June, 1868; Turner, 2002, p.134.

[dcxxxvi] APB, 20 June, 11 July, 1868.

[dcxxxvii] R Davis, ‘Orangeism in Tasmania 1832-1967’, THRA P&P, Dec, 2008, p.151.

[dcxxxviii]. See Vertigan pp.34 & subq, and B Stevenson, ‘Stand Fast Together’ A History of the Protestant Alliance Friendly Society of Victoria, Boolarong, 1996, p.14.

[dcxxxix]. Stevenson, 1996, as above, p.12.

[dcxl]. See Ballarat Courier, 1 Dec, 1870, 20 Jan, 6 May, 1871, and 27, 29 Jan, 1, 2, 8 Feb, 18 March, 13 April, 9 Nov, 1872. The ‘Order of Knights of St Patrick’ had been founded by King George 111, in the 18th century, according to the APB, 20 June, 1868, p.8.

[dcxli]. Minute Book, entry at 12 Jan, 1872, 13 June, 1873, ‘Hinton Purple Star, No 71, LOI’, at Raymond Terrace (NSW) Hist Socy.

[dcxlii]. Minute, 11 Dec, 1874, Hinton Purple Star, No 71, LOL.

[dcxliii]. Hinton LOL, Minutes, 22 Feb, 13 March, 1876.

[dcxliv]. Hinton, LOL, minute, 12 May, 1876.

[dcxlv] T Laffan, How Orange Was My Valley, draft ms, p.24, fn.12.

[dcxlvi]. NMH, 13 Nov, 1880.

[dcxlvii] Hinton LOL, Minutes, 21 May, 1880.

[dcxlviii] Hinton LOL, Minutes, 18 June, 1880.

[dcxlix]. Hinton LOL Minute, 19 Jan, 1883.

[dcl]. Singleton Argus, 21 Nov, 1881.

[dcli] T Laffan, How Orange Was the Valley, draft ms, 2008, p.29.

[dclii]. L Daley, Men and a River, MUP, 1966, p.158.

[dcliii]. The Orangeman and Protestant Catholic, 15 May, 1878, p.8.

[dcliv]. NMH, 29 Sept, 1885.

[dclv] J Sadleir, Recollections of a Victorian Police Officer, Penguin, Pt 2, 1913, pp.178-9.

[dclvi]. SMH, 9 Dec, 1868.

[dclvii]. D O’Donnell, James Hannell, Currency Lad, 1993, pp.91, 126. See J O’Brien, ‘Sectarianism in New South Wales Elections of 1843 and 1956’, and A Martin, ‘Henry Parkes and the Political Manipulation of Sectarianism’, both in Journal of Religious History (Sydney), Vol 9, 1976, for discussion.

[dclviii] NSW ML MS, 042.P199, ‘Orangemen in Public Schools and Volunteers Paraded on the 12th July, 1874, Being Correspondence..(etc)’, Parramatta, 1874.

[dclix]. T Coghlan, Labour and Industry in Australia, 1918, p.888, quoted in Ford, p.28.

[dclx]. R Travers, Henry Parkes: Father of Federation, Kangaroo, 1992.

[dclxi] N Bartley, Australian Pioneers and Reminiscences, 1849-1894, orig 1896, reprinted 1978, John Ferguson in assoc with RAHS, Sydney, 141.

[dclxii] A Martin, Henry Parkes: A Biography, MUP, 1980, p.103.

[dclxiii] ‘Colonial Radicalism – Our Own Creed’, 28 Dec, 1850, The Empire.

[dclxiv] Martin, 1980, as above, p.104.

[dclxv]. A Martin, Henry Parkes A Biography, MUP, 1980, p.73.

[dclxvi]. Travers, 1992, as above, p.55; Freemans Journal, 5 Sept, 1850.

[dclxvii] ‘The Press, a Weekly Paper’, in The Empire, 28 Dec, 1850. See also ‘The Press’, 4 Jan, and ‘Dr Lang’, 11 Jan, 1851, both in The Empire, and The Press, 8 Jan, 1851.

[dclxviii] ‘The English Press and Dr Lang’, The Empire, 4 Jan, 1851.

[dclxix] ‘Dr Lang’, 11 Jan, 1851; ‘Dr Lang’, 8 Feb, 1851, both in The Empire.

[dclxx] ‘Dr Lang’s Election for Sydney-Its Effect in England’, 12 Feb, and ‘Dr Lang’, 19 Feb, 1851, both in The Empire.

[dclxxi] The Empire, 29 Jan, 1851.

[dclxxii] The Empire, 12 April, 1851.

[dclxxiii] ‘Meeting of Catholic Electors’, The Empire, 13; see also 14, 15, 17 May, 24, 25, 28, 31 July, 7, 11, 18, 21 Aug, 11, 16 Sept, 1851.

[dclxxiv] The Empire, 15 March, 7 Aug, 1851.

[dclxxv] The Empire, 24 May, 1851.

[dclxxvi] ‘The Transportation Question’, The Empire, 9 Oct, 1851.

[dclxxvii] ‘Turon Diggings’, ‘Dr Lang and the Gold Miners’, The Empire, 10, 11 Oct, 1851.

[dclxxviii]. Travers, p.170.

[dclxxix]. WB Dalley, A Terrible Indictment, pamphlet, Sydney, 1869(?).

[dclxxx]. The Protestant Standard, (Syd), 15 May, 1869, p.3.

[dclxxxi] Freemans Journal, 1 Jan, 1870.

[dclxxxii]. Parkes Correspondence, NSW SL, 2 April, 1883, A920, p.627.

[dclxxxiii]. Illuminated Address to Henry Parkes from Loyal Orange Institute, of NSW, September, 1884, A1042, NSW SL.

[dclxxxiv]. Travers, as above, p.186.

[dclxxxv]. W. McMinn, George Reid, MUP, 1989, p.23.

[dclxxxvi]. Turner, 2002, as above, p.478.

[dclxxxvii]. Turner, 2002, pp.475-6.

[dclxxxviii]. Illuminated Address to ‘The Hon Sir Henry Parkes, GCMG’, 10 June, 1890, NSW SL, A1039.

[dclxxxix]. For Parkes’ response, SMH, 5 Sept, 1884. For definition of and list of Orange ‘client’ MPs, see E Turner, ‘..Not Narrow Minded Bigots: Proceedings of the Loyal Orange Institution of New South Wales, 1845-1895’, PhD, UNE, 2002, p.xxxiii, and App.12.

[dcxc] Turner, as above, p.227.

[dcxci]. N Turner, Catholics in Australia, Vol 2, Collins Dove, 1992, pp.201-202.

[dcxcii]. P O’Connor, The Hibernian Society of New South Wales 1880-1980, HACBS (NSW), 1980; R Sweetman, Faith and Fraternalism: A History of the Hibernian Society in New Zealand, 1869-2000, Hibernian Society, Wellington, 2002.

[dcxciii] See D McDonald, ‘Henry James O’Farrell: Fenian or Moonstruck Miscreant’, in Canberra and District Historical Society Journal, Sept, 1970.

[dcxciv] B Stevenson, 1996, as above, p.11.

[dcxcv] Ballarat Courier, 17 March, 15 June, 1, 3, 4 Oct, 1870; 7 Feb, 18 March, 1871.

[dcxcvi] HACBS Annual report, 1871, pp.21-25.

[dcxcvii] P O’Connor, The Hibernian Society of New South Wales, 1880-1980, 1980?, p.9, p.14.

[dcxcviii]. The Irish Harp and Farmers Advocate, 14 Jan, 1871.

[dcxcix]. The Irish Harp, 8 July, 1871.

[dcc]. The Irish Harp, 1, 15 July, 1871.

[dcci] T Keneally, The Great Shame, Random House, 1998, p.567.

[dccii]. Western Argus, 10 Sept, 1896, p.31.

[dcciii]. Western Argus, 25 June, 1896, p.4.

[dcciv]. T Suttor, Hierarchy and Democracy in Australia 1788-1870, MUP, 1965, p.4.

[dccv]. T Suttor, 1965, as above, p.1.

[dccvi] C Roderick, ‘Introduction’, Henry Lawson Criticism, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1972, p.xxiv.

[dccvii] Roderick, 1972, as above, p.xxvi.

[dccviii] H Heseltine, ‘The Authority of Failure’, Roderick, 1972, as above, p.462, reprinted from Australian Literary Studies, Vol 5, No 1, 1971.

[dccix] M Jones, Frances Yates and the Hermetic Tradition, Ibis, 2008, p.179.

[dccx]. A Mackey, ‘Eight’, Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry, McClure, 1917; Perrott, 1984, as above, p.147.

[dccxi] ‘Address to Our Readers’, Freemasons’ Magazine and Masonic Mirror,(FM&MM), Vol IX, July to Dec, 1863, p.v.

[dccxii] A reasonable, brief account is at K Henderson, ‘A Brief History of the Masonic Order’ in his The Masonic Grand Masters of Australia, Melbourne, 1988, pp.7-12.

[dccxiii]. Following State examples are from largely uncatalogued bundles of correspondence, marked 21/C/9, ‘Australia’, at UGL Archives, London, sighted by the present author in 2007.

[dccxiv] The details of these events beautifully exemplify the state of Masonry at the time and its neglect of its own history since – see Harland-Jacobs, 2007, and J Daniel, Masonic Networks and Connections, Aust & New Zealand Masonic Research Council, Melbourne, 2007, Ch 7, ‘Lord Carnarvon in Australia’.

[dccxv]. Newspaper, 10 July, 1890, quoted in P Caskie, Cootamundra: Foundation to Federation, Anwel, 1991, p.56.

[dccxvi] Too complicated to explain here, Royal Arch Masonry may be considered separate from Craft Masonry but a necessary adjunct of it.

[dccxvii]. ‘Memorandum Relating to the Position of Royal Arch Masonry in New South Wales’, 24 July, 1933, RA Chambers, Edinburgh, p.14. (Copy with writer)

[dccxviii]. N Turner, 1972, p.117.

[dccxix]. ‘Hidden Springs – Words spoken by Archbishop Vaughan at the Opening of the Catholic Guild Hall’, Sydney, 1876, Sydney, espec. pp 33, 43, 61. Copy at NSW State Library.

[dccxx] J Franklin, ‘Catholics versus Masons’, orig Jnl of Australian Catholic Historical Society, 2000?, reprinted Harashim, (ANZMRC), Jan, 2010, p.10.

[dccxxi]. Suttor, p.245.

[dccxxii] Bathurst Times, 16 July, 1873.

[dccxxiii] A Mackey, Encyclopaedia of Masonry, McLure, 1917, p875; see also ‘The Temple, or the Consummation of the Mission’, Chapter 5, in A. McBride, Speculative Masonry, Doran, 1924, and p.65 for the Sun.

[dccxxiv] W. Murphy, 1896, History of.., np; and personal correspondence with and research in Melbourne University Archives, where Trades Hall architect’s plans held. The Trades Hall group apparently was never put in place. See Metin, 1977, p. 61, for note on this.

[dccxxv] M. Warner, Monuments and Maidens, Picador, 1975, p.240; See also J. Warner, The Living and the Dead, Greenwood, 1975, p.339; M. Miles, ‘The Virgin’s One Bare Breast: Female Nudity and Religious Meaning in Tuscan Early Renaissance Culture’ in The Female Body in Western Culture: Contemporary Perspectives, S.Suleiman (ed), Harvard UP, 1986, p.193.

[dccxxvi] See V Emery, ‘The Daughters of the Court: Women’s Mediaevalism in Nineteenth-Century Melbourne’, in S Trigg (ed), Mediaevalism and the Gothic in Australian Culture, MUP, 2006.

[dccxxvii]. ‘Extracts from Reports of the United Grand Lodge of England Re Women and Clandestine Irregular Freemasonry’, UGL Communication, London, p.2. (Copy with writer)

[dccxxviii] E. Showalter, Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siecle, Penguin, 1990.

[dccxxix] For the Clothing Federation see cover of Ellem’s In Women’s Hands. For a NZ example see Metal, (NZ), Vol 37, No 2, April/May, 1991.

[dccxxx] The long, mixed heritage of the Britannia figure is acknowledged. A researcher has recently recorded the conclusion that ‘By the late 18th century…Britannia became more directly a vehicle for portraying contemporary attitudes towards women and gender roles. The chivalric content fed into both a Ruskinesque exaltation of woman as conscience and virtue and an openly misogynist contempt.’- M. Dresser, ‘Britannia’, in R. Samuel (ed), Patriotism: Vol 3 – National Fictions, Routledge, 1989, pp.42-43.

[dccxxxi] The Queenslander, 5 May, 1891.

[dccxxxii]. See my unpublished PhD thesis, ‘Carnival and Discipline’, Newcastle (NSW) Uni, 1994, espec. pp.353-367.

[dccxxxiii]. M Lake & H Reynolds, Drawing the Colour Line, MUP, 2008.

[dccxxxiv]. Durr, p.95, quoting Behagg who is quoting from Carlyle’s own newspaper writings. See A Prescott, ‘The Devil’s Freemason’, Paper, 2002, Freemasons Hall, London.

[dccxxxv]. R Carlile, Manual of Freemasonry, London, 1834, p.97.

[dccxxxvi]. Newcastle Morning Herald, 24 Aug, 5 Sept, 1885.

[dccxxxvii]. SMH, 27 Jan, 1890.

[dccxxxviii]. Carlile, 1834, as above, p.89.

[dccxxxix] The Bulletin, 10 March, 1883; 10, 17 April, 31 July, 1886; 27 Aug, 31 Dec, 1887; 14 July, 17 Nov, 1888; 1 Feb, 1890; 13 June, 1891; 11 March, 1893; are examples. S Lawson, The Archibald Paradox, Lane, 1983, argues for multi-editorship until Archibald’s trip to and return from the UK June, 1883-April, 1885, and Traill’s time as editor, 1883-1887. Most if not all my examples fall within the ‘Archibald era’.

[dccxl] The Bulletin, 31 Jan, 1880, p.7 (‘Briefs’).

[dccxli] The Bulletin, 31 Oct, 1885, p.4.

[dccxlii] The Bulletin, 24 July, 1885; 1 Feb, 7 June, 1890; 24 July, 1897.

[dccxliii] The Bulletin, 7 March, 1885; 22 July, 1893; 29 May, 1897.

[dccxliv] The Bulletin, 31 March, 1886; see also 7 (x2), 14 April, 1888;

[dccxlv] The Bulletin, 14 Feb, 1880, p.1.

[dccxlvi] The Bulletin, 21 Jan, 1888.

[dccxlvii] The Bulletin, 14 July, 1888.

[dccxlviii]. S Lawson, as above, p.88.

[dccxlix] See H. Jackson, The Eighteen Nineties, (1913), Harvester edn, 1976, espec. Chapter XVIII, p.244+, for discussion.

[dccl] The Bulletin, 26 April, 1890.

[dccli]. Lawson, p.116.

[dcclii] Quoted in R Broome, Treasures in Earthen Vessels, UQP, 1980, p.88; see also ‘Methodism vs Ritualism’, The Methodist, 9 Feb, 1901.

[dccliii] T Golway, Irish Rebel, St Martins, New York, 1998, p.37.

[dccliv]. S O’Luing, Fremantle Mission, Anvil, 1965, pp.45-46.

[dcclv]. D Lynch & F O’Donoghue (ed), The IRB and the 1916 Insurrection, Mercier Press, Dublin, 1957.

[dcclvi]. See SMH, 16 Dec, 1873 for example at Newcastle.

[dcclvii]. For full context, see T Laffan, How Orange Was My Valley? Protestant Sectarianism and the Loyal Orange Lodges of Australia’s Hunter Valley, 1869-1959, Toiler Editions, 2009; for quote see draft ms T Laffan, ‘The Loyal Orange Lodges and the Labour Movement of Newcastle and the Lower Hunter, Part One 1870-1914’, 2006, p.2 – copy with James.


[dcclviii]. The Magazine (of GUOOF, NSW), Sept, 1905, March, 1906.

[dcclix] The Bulletin, 26 July, 1884.

[dcclx] Information here about the ‘the Imps’ is taken from handwritten notes in the NSW State Library, at Q792/5.

[dcclxi] For programs, see The Bulletin, 21 March (brief), 28 March, 1885.

[dcclxii] SMH, 13 Sept, 1886, p.7.

[dcclxiii] W Spence, Australia’s Awakening, The Worker Trustees, Sydney & Melb, 1909.

[dcclxiv] For Assembly documents, see Adelphon Kruptos, and Secret Work and Instructions – Knights of Labor, in Mitchell Library, Sydney. ‘Local’ is the word used in the USA for a Trade Union branch.

[dcclxv] Knights of Labor Illustrated, Cook, Chicago, 1886, p.7.

[dcclxvi] See my Anarchism and State Violence in Sydney and Melbourne 1886-1896, self-published, 1986.

[dcclxvii]. Copy of this memo with writer. For context to all of this see my Anarchism and State Violence in Sydney and Melbourne 1886-1896, self-published, 1986.

[dcclxviii]. ‘J Miller’, Brisbane Worker, 9 April, 1892.

[dcclxix]. W Lane (‘J Miller’), Working Man’s Paradise, Sydney, 1892, (various reprints available); (Wagga) Hummer, 16 Jan, 1892. Other unexplored societies relevant here include the ‘Practical Brotherhood of Spiritual Sociologists’ and the ‘Austral Philosophic Savages – Murray River Tribe.’

[dcclxx]. HS Olcott, Old Diary Leaves, 4th series, 1887-1892, p.21.

[dcclxxi] For a history of Theosophy as a secret society see the letter of George Felt to ‘The London Spiritualist’, 19 June, 1878, in H Olcott, Old Diary Leaves The True History of the Theosophical Society, America 1874-1878, Theosophical Publ House, 1941, 2nd edn, p.127. Feminist and social reformer, Edith Cowan established Co-Masonry in Western Australia in 1916.

[dcclxxii]. A Gabay, The Mystic Life of Alfred Deakin, p.198, pp.200-201.

[dcclxxiii]. D Kynaston, ‘The Shaping of a Nation’, a talk to Newcastle Theosophical Society. See also Proudfoot, The Secret Plan of Canberra, 1999.

[dcclxxiv]. LM, 20 July, 1894.

[dcclxxv]. P Ford, Cardinal Moran and the ALP, MUP, 1966, p.23.

[dcclxxvi] C Dilke, ‘The Pope, Friendly Societies and Masons’, The Speaker, 12 March, 1892, p.311.

[dcclxxvii]. Ford, 1966, p.283.

[dcclxxviii]. See Moran to the AHCG on ‘Orangeism’, SMH, 18 Aug, 1890; Ford, as above, p.285.

[dcclxxix]. See series of ‘Letters’ from SMH, 28 August, to 20 Sept, 1889. The quote is from letter by ‘AR Fremlin’ at 9 Sept, 1889.

[dcclxxx]. The Age, 20 July, 1896.

[dcclxxxi] J Sadlier, Recollections of a Victorian Police Officer, Penguin, 1973 (orig 1913), pp.258-259.

[dcclxxxii] H Cleary, The Orange Society, King & Sons, Melb, 1897, p.v.

[dcclxxxiii] Cleary, 1897, as above, fn.10,

[dcclxxxiv] The Age, 16, 19, 27 July, 1897.

[dcclxxxv] See West Australian for 12, 19, 24 July, 1897, and the Golden Age, (Coolgardie) for 12 and 13 July, 1897.

[dcclxxxvi] Catholic Press, 15 July, 1899, quoted in J Brownrigg, A New Melba: The Tragedy of Amy Castles, Crossing Press, 2006, p.21.

[dcclxxxvii] The Bulletin, 9 July, 1881, p.3, has a story of a Catholic schoolteacher sacked for attending a Masonic Ball.

[dcclxxxviii]. Quoted in N Turner, 1992, as above, p.55.

[dcclxxxix]. Suttor, as above, p.303.

[dccxc]. J Bollen, Protestantism and Social Reform in New South Wales, 1890-1910, MUP, 1972, p.147.

[dccxci]. J Lepper, Famous Secret Societies, London, nd (1950?), p.309.

[dccxcii] Cai Shaoqing, ‘Analysing Chinese Secret Societies in Australia’, translation made available to Goldfields Research Centre, June 2000.

[dccxciii] A Rasmussen, ‘Networks and Negotiations: Bendigo’s Chinese and the Easter Fair’, Jnl of Australian Colonial History, 6 (2004): pp.79-92.

[dccxciv] See ‘Bendigo Easter Fair’, Bendigo Advertiser, 6, 13, 16 March, and 23 April, 1889.

[dccxcv] J Fitzgerald, Abstract to ‘Politics and Networks in the Transition from Rural to Urban Organisation of the Hung League of Colonial and Federation Australia’, Paper to CSAA Conference, Bendigo, 2005.

[dccxcvi]. M Tart, The Life of Quong Tart, McLardy, Sydney, 1911, pp.6, 68, 97.

[dccxcvii] Cai Shaoqing, 2000, as above, p.7.

[dccxcviii] C. Price, The Great White Walls are Built, ANU, 1974, p.187, quoting G Oddie, ‘The Chinese in Victoria, 1870-1890’, MA, U of Melb, 1959, pp.55-70. See also Oddie, Historical Studies, Nov, 1961.

[dccxcix] Cao Shaoqing, pps.8-10.

[dccc]. Evening News, 15 March, 1892, in Folder, ‘Newspaper Cuttings – Quong Tart’, FA923.8/Q9/1A1, NSW ML.

[dccci] Kok Hu Jin, Chinese Lodges in Australia, Golden Dragon Museum, Bendigo, 2005, p.10. See also CF Yong, The New Gold Mountain, Raphael Arts, 1977.

[dcccii] S Lyman, W Willmott, B Ho, ‘Rules of a Chinese Secret Society in British Columbia’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Uni of London, Vol 27, No 3 (1964), pp.530-539.

  1. Industrial Relations in the Broken Hill Mining Industry, 1884 to 1971, Paper by Stage IV Class, Broken Hill Technical College Management Certificate Course, 1972, p.5.
  2. Industrial Relations in the Broken Hill Mining Industry, 1884-1971, as above, p.5.
  3. Silver Age, 1 July, 1889.
  4. Silver Age, 1 Nov, 1884.
  5. SA, 18 Oct, 1884, p.2.
  6. SA, 20 Dec, 1884.
  7. Silver Age, 8 Aug, 1885.
  8. The Silver Age, 3 March, 1886.
  9. Silver Age, 18 July, 1889.
  10. Silver Age, 2 Aug, 1889.
  11. Silver Age, 5 July, 1889.
  12. Silver Age, 4 July, 1889.
  13. Silver Age, 26 July, 1889.
  14. E Stokes, United We Stand, Five Mile Press, 1983, p.138.
  15. Silver Age, 3 Aug, 1889.
  16. Barrier Miner, 7 March, 1889.
  17. Silver Age, 5 Aug, 1889.
  18. Silver Age, 30 Sept, 1889.
  19. Silver Age, 2 October, 1889.
  20. Silver Age, 16 Oct, 1889.
  21. Silver Age, 25, 26 Oct, 1889.
  22. Barrier Miner, 18 Jan, 1890.
  23. Silver Age, 7 Nov, 1889.
  24. Barrier Miner, 20 Jan, 1890.
  25. Silver Age, 15 Nov, 1889.
  26. Silver Age, 28 Nov, 1889.
  27. See NSW SL for relevant material, his 1895 pamphlet, Our Turbulent Democracy for a photograph, and Gibney & Smith, A Biographical Register, Vol II, L-Z, for a brief ‘Whitelocke’ entry.
  28. Barrier Miner, 2, 18 March, 1889.
  29. Barrier Miner, 3 July, 1890.
  30. Barrier Miner, 21 July, 1890.
  31. Barrier Miner, 9 July, 1890.
  32. Barrier Miner, 9 July, 1890.
  33. BM, 14 Aug, 1890.
  34. BM, 20 Aug, 1890.
  35. BM, 30 Aug, 1890.
  36. BM, 1 Sept, 1890.
  37. SMH, 1 Sept, 1890.
  38. See for an account, ‘The Great Strike’, in J Bollen’s Protestantism and Social Reform in New South Wales, 1890-1910, MUP, 1972, pp.15-23.
  39. SMH, 8 Sept, 1890.
  40. NMH, 8 Sept, 1890.

[dcccxliii] ‘Olla Podrida’ by ‘Scotia’,Barrier Miner, 1 July, 1890.

  1. BM, 1 Oct, 1890.
  2. BM, 3 Oct, 1890.
  3. BM, 15 Nov, 1890.
  4. Barrier Hill Age, 3, 4 Oct; 4, 14 Nov, 15, 23 Dec, 1893.
  5. Western Free Press, 11 August, 22 Sept, 1899.

[dcccxlix]. J Menadue, A History of the Australian Natives’ Association, 1871-1971, Horticultural Press, 1971, p.1.

[dcccl] B Kelleher, ANA – Its Aims and Influence on the Australian Scene, 1963 pamphlet, p.2.

[dcccli]. Western Argus, (Kalgoorlie), 18 Jan, 1900, p.23.

[dccclii] Menadue, as above, p.247.

[dcccliii]. Melbourne Herald, 29 Jan, 1906.

[dcccliv]. The Age, 30 Jan, 1906.

[dccclv] The Bulletin, 26 April, 1890, 21 Feb, 1891.

[dccclvi] The foregoing information from Menadue, 1971, as above, pp.94-104.

[dccclvii]. Menadue, 1971, as above, pp.13, 97, 123.

[dccclviii]. Deakin to Heide, 11 March, 1901, in Heide Papers, VSL.

[dccclix]. ‘A Proposal for ANA Paper’, in Heide Papers, MS 13375, Box 3904, VSL.

[dccclx] E Hawkins, A Concise Cyclopeadia of Freemasonry, London, 1908, p.140.

[dccclxi]. The Inaugural Celebrations of the Commonwealth of Australia, Gullick, Govt Printer, 1904, p.55.

[dccclxii]. ‘Celebrations in Sydney’, NMH, 7 Jan, 1901.

[dccclxiii] ‘Inauguration’, H Irving (ed), The Centenary Companion to Australian Federation, CUP, 1991, p.385. See also entries for ‘Churches’.

[dccclxiv]. J Keenan, The Inaugural Celebrations of the Commonwealth of Australia, Gov Printer, 1904, p.170.

[dccclxv]. J Keenan, Inaugural Celebrations…, 1904, as above, pp.254-7.

[dccclxvi]. Report & Proceedings of the Grand Annual Movable Committee…(etc)…Manchester Unity,..Wollongong..1901, IOOFMU of NSW, 1901, p.viii.

[dccclxvii] LM, 4, 15 Jan, 1901.

[dccclxviii] Western Argus, 15 Feb, 1900, 8 Jan, 16 April, 1901.

[dccclxix]. The Catholic Press, 12 March, 1903, p.14, p.19.

[dccclxx]. Sir Edmund Barton Papers, July 1897, Vol 3, pp.253-4, NSW State Library, MLMss 248/1 (mfm CY2450).

[dccclxxi] The Methodist, 13 July, 1901, quoted in J Bollen, Protestantism and Social Reform in New South Wales, MUP, 1972, p.146.

[dccclxxii] ‘DCR’s Notebook’, The Rechabite (Victoria), 15 Feb, 1911, p.261.

[dccclxxiii] ‘The Case of Mildura’, The Rechabite, (Victoria), 15 Oct, 1910, pp.125-6.

[dccclxxiv]. Bollen, p.147.

[dccclxxv] HB Higgins, A New Province for Law and Order, Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1968, p.3.

[dccclxxvi]. Higgins, as above, p.4.

[dccclxxvii] SMH, 30 Sept, 1902.

[dccclxxviii] R Markey, ‘Mutual Benefit Societies in Australia, 1830-1991’, Social Security Mutualism: The Comparative History of Mutual Benefit Societies, Lang, Berne, 1996, p.170.

[dccclxxix] Markey, 1996, as above, p.171.

[dccclxxx] WG Spence, Australia’s Awakening, Sydney, 1909, p.35.

[dccclxxxi]. O’Connor, 1980, as above, p.20.

[dccclxxxii]. Quoted in Cromwell & Green, p.66.

[dccclxxxiii]. ‘Oddfellowship’, MM, 28 Jan, 1910.

[dccclxxxiv]. NMH, 18 Jan, 1937

[dccclxxxv].C Watt & W Wamsley, A History of the Manchester Unity Independent Order of Oddfellows in Victoria 1840-1971, MUIOOF, Melb, 1972, p.17.

[dccclxxxvi] Report of the Third Interstate Conference (etc) Brisbane, 1901, Brisbane, 1901; Smedley & Ridley (eds), 100 Grand United Years, Ziegler, Sydney, 1948.

[dccclxxxvii]. Rechabite and Temperance Magazine (NSW), 3 Jan, 1900, p.9; The Rechabite, (Victoria), 15 Aug, 1910, p.52.

[dccclxxxviii] Bro Chenoweth, ‘Rechabite Inter-State Conference in Australia’, Rechabite & Temperance Magazine,(UK), Aug, 1901, p.186.

[dccclxxxix] The Rechabite and Temperance News, (Victoria), 13 Aug, 1910, p.48.

[dcccxc] ‘Inter-State Temperance Conference’, The Rechabite, (Victorian), 15 April, 1911, pp.365-370.

[dcccxci] The Austral Druid, June, 1912, p.1.

[dcccxcii] The Austral Druid, Nov, 1911, p.8.

[dcccxciii] The Austral Druid, March, 1912, p.2.

[dcccxciv]. Editorial, The Magazine of the (GUOOF), Sydney, 15 July, 1910, p.130.

[dcccxcv]. ‘Report of the Committee of Management’, (GUOOF) Report and Proceedings of the Annual General Meeting..Sydney, 1910, p.17.

[dcccxcvi]. Letter, ‘Members Without Initiation’, The Magazine, 15 July, 1910, p.143.

[dcccxcvii] Letter, ‘The New Legislation’, p.144.

[dcccxcviii]. WAPP, Leg Ass, Report by the Registrar of Friendly Societies for the Year, 1923-24.

[dcccxcix]. ‘An Introductory Note’, The WA Friendly Societies Review, Perth, Jan, 1899, Vol 1, No 1.

[cm]. SMH, 2 April, 1873.

[cmi] This section paraphrasing P Gosden, Friendly Societies in England, 1815-1875, Manch UP, 1961, pp.163-169.

[cmii] The Age, 18 March, 1898. St Patrick’s Day report, same.

[cmiii]. South Australian Parliamentary Papers, Legislative Assembly, 1896, Report No 25, ‘The First Report of the Public Actuary on Friendly Societies, 1888-1895.’

[cmiv] In Australia, ‘MUIOOF’ is more common than ‘IOOFMU’.

[cmv]. SAPP, Leg Ass, Report No 90, published in 1897.

[cmvi]. SAPP, Leg Ass, Report No 66, 1902.

[cmvii]. SAPP, Leg Ass, Report No 97, 1903.

[cmviii]. Report of the Registrar of Friendly Societies, for the period ending 31 December, 1902, Parliamentary Papers & Proceedings, NSW Leg Ass, 1904, Second Session, p.917.

[cmix]. Report to Parliament, 1904, as above, p.918.

[cmx] Report & Proceedings…, 1901, as above, p.xiii.

[cmxi] As above, p.xxxii.

[cmxii] As above, p.xvi.

[cmxiii] Rechabite and Temperance Magazine, (NSW), 17 Dec, 1900, p.2.

[cmxiv] Rechabite and Temperance Magazine (NSW), 21 Dec, 1901, p.2.

[cmxv]. C Crowe, The Bribery Commission – IOF Practices, (pamphlet), Melb, 1904.

[cmxvi]. Report to (NSW) Parliament, 1904, as above, p.921.

[cmxvii]. R & TM (NSW), 15 April, p.3.

[cmxviii]. R&TM, 6 Aug, 1902, p.7.

[cmxix]. p.924.

[cmxx] The most reliable figures for Friendly Societies at 2008 remain those in Green & Cromwell, 1984.

[cmxxi]. I Turner & L Sandercock, 1983, as above, p.22.

[cmxxii]. The Argus, 28 Dec, 1867,

[cmxxiii]. ‘The Insolvency of Trade Unions – From the Economist’, in The Oddfellows’ Magazine, (UK MU) July, 1868, p.424.

[cmxxiv] LM, 15 June, 1894.

[cmxxv]. Turner, 1992, as above, p.200.

[cmxxvi]. The Watchman, 1 Feb, 1902; also 8, 15 Feb, 1902.

[cmxxvii]. SMH, 30 Aug, 1889; see for related: 19, 28, 31 Aug, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 16, 20 Sept, 1889. See Laffan, 2009, as above, for extended discussion of the issues.

[cmxxviii]. SMH, 19 Sept, 1889.

[cmxxix]. G Blainey, The Peaks of Lyell, MUP, 1954, p.197.

[cmxxx]. Blainey, 1954, p.198.

[cmxxxi]. Trade Unions, Building Societies and Co-operative Societies – Report of the Registrar of Friendly Societies for the Years 1903 and 1904, NSW Leg Assembly, 1905, p.1163.

[cmxxxii]. Trade Unions (etc) – Report to Leg Assembly, 1905, as above, p.1165.

[cmxxxiii]. As above, p.1166.

[cmxxxiv]. p.1167.

[cmxxxv].‘Wallsend Miners’, NMH, 19 Dec, 1904.

[cmxxxvi]. The Age, 17 Aug, 1907. See also 12 August, and Argus, 9, 10, 12, 14 August, 1907.

[cmxxxvii] Thornton, 1989, as above, p.91.

[cmxxxviii] Thornton, 1989, p.113.

[cmxxxix] P Strangio & B Costar, ‘BA Santamaria: Religion as Politics’, The Great Labor Schism, Scribe, 2005, p.210.

[cmxl]. Strangio & Costar, as above, fn 35, p.218. This has yet to be followed up.

[cmxli] T Truman, Catholic Action and Politics, Georgian House, 1959,p.27.

[cmxlii] Truman, 1959, as above, p.21.

[cmxliii] Truman, 1959, p.30.

[cmxliv] Truman, 1959, p.55, quoting Monsignor Pavan to the First Asian Meeting of the Lay Apostolate in Manilla in December, 1955.

[cmxlv] Truman, as above, quoting the Handbook of the Young Catholic Students, 1957 edn, pp.79-80.

[cmxlvi] Truman, as above, quoting Pope XII Encyclical, ‘Humani Generis’, of 1951, p.88.

[cmxlvii] Truman, p.57, quoting Catholic Action in Australia, Renown Press, nd, (1947?), p.37.

[cmxlviii]. Catholic Press, 4 December, 1913.

[cmxlix] Evatt, 1945, as above, p.333.

[cml] Lang, I Remember, pp.37-39.

[cmli]. B Santamaria, Daniel Mannix A Biography, MUP, 1984, p.66.

[cmlii] T Laffan, ‘The Loyal Orange Lodges and the Labour Movement of Newcastle and the Lower Hunter, Part One 1870-1914’, p.3 (copy with James).

[cmliii] T Laffan, ‘ The Loyal Orange Lodges and the Newcastle Labour Movement’, p.5. (Copy with James)

[cmliv]. Released by Grand Orange Imperial Council, 1907, quoted by Laffan, draft ms, 2008, p.7.

[cmlv] Lang, I Remember, p.69.

[cmlvi]. N Turner, Catholics in Australia, Vol 2, Collins Dove, 1992, p.55.

[cmlvii]. Mannix speaking at Drysdale (Vic), 12 December, 1917, quoted by E Brady, Doctor Mannix, Archbishop of Melbourne, 1934.

[cmlviii]. B Santamaria, Daniel Mannix: An Autobiography, Brown, Prior, Anderson, Melb, 1981, p.89, quoting Holman’s unpublished memoirs from H Evatt, Australian Labor Leader, Angus & Robertson, 1945, p.410. Readers should also consult J Lang, I Remember, Invincible Press, 1956 (?). Lang, personally involved in NSW ALP politics from the 1890’s thought religion ‘a man’s own affair’ but his text contains useful references.

[cmlix]. G Bolton, Land of Vision and Mirage Western Australia Since 1826, UWAP, 2008, p.109.

[cmlx]. T Laffan, ‘The Protestant Independent Labour Party of NSW, 1923-1929’, The Hummer, Summer, 2002-3, p.1.

[cmlxi]. P O’Connor, The Hibernian Society of NSW, 1880-1980, HACBS, 1980, p.58, quoting R Darroch, ‘The Man Behind Australia’s Secret Army’, The Bulletin, 20 May, 1980.

[cmlxii] See J Kildea, Tearing the Fabric: Sectarianism in Australia 1910-1925, Citadel Books, Sydney, 2002, and relevant newspaper reports in the Catholic Press and elsewhere.

[cmlxiii] Australian Christian World, 12 March, 1922.

[cmlxiv] J Kildea, ‘Troubled Times: An Overview of the history of the Catholic Federation of NSW’, Aust Catholic Historical Society Journal, Vol 23, 2002, p.21.

[cmlxv]. W Skelton, A Fair Average Quality Australian Autobiography, self-published, copy at NLA 2696, pp.40-41.

[cmlxvi]. Muirden, 1968, p.11.

[cmlxvii] Lang, I Remember, p.182.

[cmlxviii] Laffan, The Hummer, 2002-3, as above, p.5.

[cmlxix]. T Laffan, How Orange Was My Valley, 2008, draft MS.

[cmlxx] L Crisp, Ben Chifley, Angus & Robertson, 1961, p.57, p.35.

[cmlxxi] Laffan, 2009, as above, p.110.

[cmlxxii] The Official Handbook of the Legion of Mary, Concilium Legionis Mariae, Dublin, 1959, p.152.

[cmlxxiii] Laffan, 2009, as above, from p.122.

[cmlxxiv]. A Moore, The Secret Army and the Premier, UNSW, 1989, pp.15, 133. The ‘episode’ involved a dissident army officer, De Groot, intervening before the official ceremony to cut the ribbon ‘opening’ the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

[cmlxxv]. See B Muirden, The Puzzled Patriots, MUP, 1968, for all of these.

[cmlxxvi]. Muirden, 1968, p.47.

[cmlxxvii]. ‘Knights of the Anglo-Saxon Clan’, (pamphlet) NSW Ml 369.3/K.

[cmlxxviii] Moore, as above, 1989, p.203.

[cmlxxix]. Bolton, 2008, as above, p.109.

[cmlxxx] Moore, as above, p.177.

[cmlxxxi]. See NMH, 25 March, 1, 2 April, 1937.

[cmlxxxii]. G Blainey, Odd Fellows: A History of IOOF Australia, Allen & Unwin, 1991, p.119.

[cmlxxxiii] The Oddfellow, (GUOOF), 15 August, 1923, p.11; Minutes of MU AGMs, HRD, 1929-1932, Cessnock Public Library.

[cmlxxxiv] The Referee, 4 July, 1917.

[cmlxxxv]. ‘Catholics Hit for Six by Sir Don’s Scathing Pen’, Newcastle Herald, 8 March, 2002, referring to sale of a 1995 Bradman letter by Christies.

[cmlxxxvi] Letter from M(?) Hanigan, of ‘St Gerard’s, Wellington (New Zealand)’, 25 July, 1934, Fingleton Collection, MLMSS 5691, Box 1 (29).

[cmlxxxvii] J Fingleton, Batting from Memory, Collins, 1981.

[cmlxxxviii] Letter from ‘Paddy Mc, St Kevin’s College, Toorak’, nd but ‘1936’ hand written at top, Fingleton Collection, MLMSS 5691, Box 1(29).

[cmlxxxix] G Growden, Jack Fingleton, Allen & Unwin, 2008, pp.124-5.

[cmxc] K Cramp, From Jubilee to Diamond Jubilee, UGL, Sydney, 1948, pp.116-117.

[cmxci]. G Gumpl and R Kleinig, The Hitler Club The Rise and Fall of Australia’s No 1 Nazi, Brolga, 2007, p.81.

[cmxcii] G Love & N Morse, ‘The Re-Formed Triad League’, AQC, 2003, p.248.

[cmxciii] R Edmonds, In Storm and Struggle, Newcastle, 1991, p.13.

[cmxciv] According to Lang, Garden was more opportunist than committed ideologue – see Lang, 1956, as above.

[cmxcv] Letter No 940, Exec Committee of the Communist International, Moscow, to J Garden, 15 Oct, 1923, at Ag 75, NSW MLMs.

[cmxcvi] Quoted in Costa, p.319.

[cmxcvii]. A Walker, Coaltown, 1945, p.59.

[cmxcviii] ‘Gospel Church’s Fiery Beginning in Midst of Mining Turmois’, Maitland Mercury, 19 Nov, 1984.

[cmxcix]. Cessnock Eagle, 31 May, 1929.

[m] Cessnock Eagle, 20 Feb, 1931.

[mi] Labor Daily, 5 May, 1931. For all reference details see my paper, ‘The Politics of Revivalism During the Depression on the Norther Coalfields’, July, 1994.

[mii] J Sheilds, ‘Craftsmen in the Making: The Memory and Meaning of Apprenticeship in Sydney Between the Great War and the Great Depression’, in J Sheilds, All Our Labours, UNSWP, 1992, p.88.

[miii]. History of Tara Shire, 1840-1988, Tara Shire, 1988, p.68.

[miv]. Letter, GM Barratt to ‘Bro AE Rudd’, District Secretary, Southern District, GUOOF, 15 Dec, 1942. (in author’s possession)

[mv] See, for example, N Morse, ‘A New Discovery’, NSW Lodge of Research, April, 1995, p.4.

[mvi] R Braddon, Images of Australia, Collins, 1988, p.18.

[mvii] Braddon, 1988, as above, p.22.

[mviii] Minute boks, PAFS Lodge Loyal Preston, No 20, Perth, WA, for dates 15 June, 1939, 27 Nov, 1943 – at WA State Library.

[mix] Santamaria, 1997, as above, p.81.

[mx] ‘Knight News’, Newcastle Morning Herald, 31 Oct, 1990.

[mxi] The Ulster Link, Melbourne, monthly, nd, believed 2001.

[mxii]. R Terrill, The Australians: In Search of an Identity, Bantam, 1987, p.82.

[mxiii] Copy with author.

[mxiv] D Rawson, ‘Has Unionism a Future?’, in M Crosby & M Easson, What Should Unions Do?, Pluto, 1992, p.12.

[mxv] M Costa, ‘Mythology, Marketing and Competition: A Heretical View of the Future of Unions’, in Crosby & Easson, 1992, above, p.316.

[mxvi]. Costa, as above, p.317.

[mxvii]. Costa, as above, p.319.

[mxviii] Costa, p.320.

[mxix] See bitter attack by the editor of mining union journal of an ABC documentary on the 1949 strike, P Gorman, ‘ABC TV show makes a mockery of our coal miners history’, Common Cause, Vol 74, No 6, Dec, 2008, p.12.

[mxx] M Kellerman, From Diamond Jubilee to Centenary History of Forty Years of the United Grand Lodge of Freemasonry in New South Wales 1948 – 1988, Vol IV, UGL of NSW, 1990, p.1.

[mxxi] K Cramp, ‘Preface’, From Jubilee to Diamond Jubilee 1938-48, UGL, Sydney, 1949, p.vii.

[mxxii] These figures and the following comments drawn from or based on Chapter V, ‘Membership’ in Vol IV, Kellerman, as above, from p.241.

[mxxiii] Kellerman, as above, p.251.

[mxxiv] Kellerman, as above, p.258.

[mxxv] Kellerman, as above, p.269.

[mxxvi] Kellerman, as above, pp.279-282.

[mxxvii]. J Snoek, ‘Researching Freemasonry: Where are we?’, C(entre for)R(esearch into)F(reemasonry and)F(raternalism) Working Paper Series, No 2, Sheffield, 2007, p.19.

[mxxviii] IOOF Reports and Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Australasia at the Twenty Sixth Triennial Session…New Zealand, 1966, p.9 for ‘free white male’, p.25 for ref to ‘Comm Friendly Societies Council of Australia’, p.87 for ‘Telegraphic Codes and Cyphers’.

[mxxix] Colombo & Tapay, Private Health Insurance in Australia A Case Study, OECD Health Working Papers, 8, 2003, p.4.

[mxxx]. R Ward, A Radical Life, Macmillan Aust, 1988, p.225; see p.10 for earlier episode.

[mxxxi] The Age, 17 August, 1907, p.5.

[mxxxii] D Green & L Cromwell, Mutual Aid or Welfare State, Allen & Unwin, 1984, p.xvii.

[mxxxiii]. D Horne, The Lucky Country, Penguin, 1964, p.27; M Harris, ‘To Define True Mateship’, in The Angry Eye, Pergamon, 1973, pp.32-36.

[mxxxiv]. C Wallace-Crabbe, Melbourne or the Bush, Angus & Robertson, 1974, p.8; M Horne, 1964, as above, p.20; S Lawson, The Archibald Paradox, Allen Lane, 1983, pp.257-8; R Gerster, ‘Preface’, in Big-Noting: The Heroic Theme in Australian War Writing, MUP, 1987, p.ix.

[mxxxv] J Gascoigne, The Enlightenment and the Origins of European Australia, UNSWP, 2005, p.169.

[mxxxvi] D Hickie, The Prince and the Premier, Angus & Robertson, 1985, p.53, p.17.

[mxxxvii] See my ‘Getting the Question Right’, 2007 Paper to International Masonic Conference, Edinburgh.

[mxxxviii]See Papers from 2007, 2009 International Conference into History of Freemasonry, Edinburgh, available from Grand Lodge of Scotland, Edinburgh.