[i] E Batley, ‘Human rights and the masonic legacy’, in M Scanlan (ed), The Social Impact of Freemasonry on the Modern Western World, Vol 1, The Canonbury Papers, Canonbury Masonic Research Centre, 2000, p.21.
[ii] J Curl, The Art and Architecture of Freemasonry, Batsford, 1991, p.8.
[iii] W Weisberger, ‘John Theophilus Desagulier: Promoter of the Enlightenment and and of Speculative Freemasonry’, AQC, Vol 114, 2001, pp.65-96. See also, J Stokes, ‘Life of John Theophilus Desagulier’, AQC, Vol 38, 1925. Among many other examples – R Ng, ‘The Age of Enlightenment and Freemasonry’, on Pietre-Stones website, 2015; M Poll (ed), The Masonic Enlightenment – The Philosophy, History and Wisdom of Freemasonry, Cornerstone, 2006.
[iv] WA Laurie, ‘Preface’, The History of Freemasonry, Edinburgh, 1859, p.v.
[v] D Murray Lyon, Freemasonry in Scotland, 1873, p.2.
[vi] H Stillson & WJ Hughan, A History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders, Boston, 1909, p.37.
[vii] M Kellerman, From Diamond Jubilee to Centenary History of Forty Years of the United Grand Lodge of Freemasonry in New South Wales 1948 – 1988, Vol IV, UGL of NSW, 1990, p.1.
[viii] N Chomsky, ‘The Responsibility of Intellectuals’, in American Power and the New Mandarins, Pelican, 1969, p.258
[ix] Chomsky, 1969, as above, p.103.
[x] R Evans, In Defence of History, Granta, 1997, p.3.
[xi] R Morris, in F Thompson (ed), The Cambridge Social History of Britain 1750-1950, 1990. p.401.
[xii] J Israel, The Enlightenment Contested, Oxford, 2006, pp.864-5.
[xiii] P Rich, ‘Margaret Jacob and Masonic Research’, in P Rich & M Jacob, Freemasonry’s Research Agenda, Proceedings of the Policy Studies Organisation, New Series No 30, 2015, p.1. For her ‘civil society’ theory, see her ‘Freemasonry and Government’ from p.15 in the same volume.
[xiv] K Loiselle, Brotherly Love, Cornell University Press, 2014, p.7.
[xv] Quoted in J Cole, Napoleon’s Egypt, Palgrave, 2007, p.42.
[xvi] D Sommer, Freemasonry in the Ottoman Empire, Tauris, 2015, p.1.
[xvii] See some discussion of these at J Snoek, ‘The Earliest Development of Masonic Degrees and Rituals: Hamill versus Stevenson’, in Scanlan, 2000, p.2, fn 8.
[xviii] I Kant, An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?, Penguin edn, 2009, p.1.
[xix] J Israel, The Enlightenment Contested, Oxford, 2006, pp.864-5.
[xx] ‘Concerning God and Religion’, Anderson’s Constitutions of 1723, quoted in B Jones, Freemasons’ Guide and Compendium, various edns to 1965, p.183.
[xxi] R Gould, ‘History of the United Grand Lodge of England’, The History of Freemasonry, Vol III, p.7
[xxii] B Jones, Freemasons Guide and Compendium, 1956 revised edn, Harrap, p.192.
[xxiii] D Stevenson, The Origins of Freemasonry – Scotland’s Century 1590-1710, Cambridge UP, 1988, p.xiii; see also his The First Freemasons, Aberdeen UP, 1989.
[xxiv] J Harland-Jacobs, Builders of Empire, Chapel Hill, 2007, p.4, p.260.
[xxv] R Berman, The Foundations of Modern Freemasonry, Sussex Academic Press, 2012; and Schism, Sussex Academic Press, 2013.
[xxvi] R Berman, The Foundations of Modern Freemasonry, Sussex, 2012; Schism: The Battle that Forged Freemasonry, Sussex Academic, 2013; with more in press.
[xxvii] MK Schuchard, Emanuel Swedenborg, Brill, 2011; Restoring the Temple of Vision, Brill, 2002.
[xxviii] R Berman, ‘Preface and Acknowledgements’, The Foundations of Modern Freemasonry, Sussex, 2012, np.
[xxix] MK Schuchard, Emanuel Swedenborg, Secret Agent on Earth and in Heaven: Jacobites, Jews, and Freemasons in Early Modern Sweden, Leiden, Brill, 2012.
[xxx] J Curl, ‘Review’, The Times Higher Educational Supplement, 22 March, 2012; N Goodrick-Clarke, ‘Review’, Reviews in History, (on-line), April, 2012; AQC, Vol 115, 2003, pp.33-72; M Schuchard, ‘Response to Prescott’s Review’, Aries, 2004, 4, pp.184-203.
[xxxi] M Schuchard, Restoring the Temple of Vision – Cabalistic Freemasonry and Stuart Culture, Brill, 2002, p.442.
[xxxii] D Stevenson, The Origins of Freemasonry – Scotland’s Century, 1590-1710, CUP, 1988, p.8 and Ch 7.
[xxxiii] Loftus and Aarons, The Secret War Against the Jews, St Martins Griffin, 1994, p.23.
[xxxiv] A Sinclair, The Other Victoria: The Princess Royal and the Great Game of Europe, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1981, p.1.
[xxxv] J Haswell, Spies and Spy-masters, Thames and Hudson, 1977, pp.102-4.
[xxxvi] Quoted in newspapers in 1844 at time of the Mazzini mail interception controversy – eg in West Kent Guardian, 10 Aug, 1844.
[xxxvii] Quoted in P. Satia, Spies in Arabia, OUP, 2008, p.3.
[xxxviii] T Ferguson, British Military Intelligence, 1870-1914, University Publications of America, 1984, p.1.
[xxxix] H Douglas, Jacobite Spy Wars, Sutton, 1999, p.3.
[xl] L Smith, Treason in Tudor England – Politics and Paranoia, Cape, 1986, pp.179-181.
[xli] The Green Ribbon Club was a tavern-based network which signalled the emergence of English ‘party political’ propaganda. It staged street protests and sent pamphlets all over the country to support Whig policies.
[xlii] R Weil, A Plague of Informers, Yale, 2013, p.70.
[xliii] R Baden-Powell, My Adventures as a Spy, Pearson, 1915, p.11.
[xliv] R Weil, A Plague of Informers, Yale, 2013, p.118, for Matthew Smith’s 1699, Memoir of Secret Service; and for Kingston, see Ch 5, espec p.189.
[xlv] R Harris, An Officer and a Spy, Hutchinson, 2014, p.17, p.35.
[xlvi] E Volkman, The History of Espionage, Carlton, 2007, p.7.
[xlvii] Two books by Giles Milton, Nathaniel’s Nutmeg, and Big Chief Elizabeth, set the scene.
[xlviii] A Hogge, God’s Secret Agents, Harper Collins, 2005, pp.124-125.
[xlix] J Cooper, The Queen’s Agent, Pegasus, 1913, p.11.
[l] ‘Sir Henry Pottinger’, Carlisle Journal, 4 Jan, 1845.
[li] See Weil, in particular – A Plague of Informers, Yale, 2013.
[lii] B Newman, Spy and Counter Spy, Robert Hale, 1970, p.13.
[liii] J Cooper, The Queen’s Agent, 2011; and D Blixt, Her Majesty’s Will, 2012, are examples.
[liv] Wikipedia site, ‘Robert Shirley’, viewed 12 Oct, 2015.
[lv] E Kritzler, Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean, Anchor, 2009, espec Ch 8.
[lvi] J Walker, PISTOLS! TREASON! MURDER! The Rise and Fall of a Master Spy, MUP, 2007, p.43-5.
[lvii] C Carter, The Secret Diplomacy of the Hapsburgs, 1598-1625, Columbia UP, 1964, p.4.
[lviii] N Akkerman, ‘The Postmistress, the Diplomat and a Black Chamber?’, in Adams and Cox, Diplomacy and Early Modern Culture, Palgrave, 2011, p.172.
[lix] K de Leeuw, ‘The Black Chamber in the Dutch Republic during the War of Spanish Succession and its Aftermath 1707-1715’, The Historical Journal, Vol 42, 1990.
[lx] M Ashley, John Wildman, Plotter and Postman, Cape, 1947.
[lxi] T Birch (ed), A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurpoe, Esqu, (etc) Vol 5, London 1742, p.18.
[lxii] See V Cronin, Catherine, Empress of all the Russias, Collins, 1978, pp.285-7.
[lxiii] Paraphrase by Peter Ackroyd, from ‘Pilgrim’s Progress’ (1678), in London – A Biography, Vintage, 2001, p.307.
[lxiv] E Thompson, Whigs and Hunters, Peregrine, 1977, p.198.
[lxv] E Thompson, Whigs and Hunters, Penguin, 1975, p.178.
[lxvi] ‘Lecky’s Eighteenth Century’, The Times, 23 April, 1878, p.5.
[lxvii] E Pearce, The Great Man: Sir Robert Walpole, 2007, p.2, p.427.
[lxviii] O Field, The Kit-Kat Club, Harper Perennial, 2009, p.371.
[lxix] P Clark, British Clubs and Societies 1580-1800, Oxford, 2000, Ch 9, ‘Freemasons’.
[lxx] Information in this chapter from MK Schuchard, Emanuel Swedenborg, Brill, 2012, from p.100 +. The quote is from p.124.
[lxxi] R Berman, The Foundations of Modern Freemasonry, Sussex Academic, 2012, pp.143, 147, 149, 152.
[lxxii] See O Field, The Kit-Kat Club, Harper Perennial, 2008, pp.48-9, p.312 for one example among many of electoral corruption, and her references.
[lxxiii] MK Schuchard, Emanuel Swedenborg, Brill, 2012, pp.64-5 for the RS’s chauvinism.
[lxxiv] N Kamil, Fortress of the Soul, John Hopkins Press, 2005, specially Ch’s 13 and 14.
[lxxv] G Holmes & D Szechi, The Age of Oligarchy Pre-Industrial Britain 1722-1783, Longman, 1993, Ch 1, espec pp.15-19.
[lxxvi] MK Schuchard, Emanuel Swedenborg, Brill, 2012, pp.106-7, and pp.186-7.
[lxxvii] J Black, Politics and Foreign Policy in the Age of George I, 1714-1727, Ashgate, 2014, p.32.
[lxxviii] O Field, The Kit-Kat Club, Harper, 2009, p.273.
[lxxix] R Berman, Schism: the Battle that Forged Freemasonry, Sussex Academic, 2013, p.1.
[lxxx] L Radzinowicz, A History of English Criminal Law and its Administration from 1750, 1948, I, p.77, quoted in E Thompson, Whigs and Hunters, Penguin, 1975, p.22.
[lxxxi] R Holmes, Dr Johnson and Richard Savage, Flamingo, 1994, p.44, p.161. See Berman, 2012, p.145 (Huddleston), p.157 (Lily).
[lxxxii] N Kamil, The Fortress of the Soul, John Hopkins, 2005, p.554, pp.718-20.
[lxxxiii] A Prescott, ‘Relations Between the Grand Lodges of England and Sweden During the Long Eighteenth Century’, Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism, Vol 3, No 2 (2012), p.189.
[lxxxiv] MK Schuchard, Emanuel Swedenborg, Brill, 2012, p.235, p.294, p.303.
[lxxxv] IS Leadam, ‘Walpole, Sir Robert, 1676-1745’, Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Vol 59, pp.201-207.
[lxxxvi] R Berman, Schism: The Battle that Forged Freemasonry, Sussex Academic, 2013, pp.4-5.
[lxxxvii] T Ferguson, British Military Intelligence, 1870-1974, Univ Publishers of America, 1984, p.9.
[lxxxviii] M Baigent & R Leigh, The Temple and the Lodge, Arrow, 1998, p.276.
[lxxxix] RF Gould, Military Lodges The Apron and the Sword, 1899, pp.157-8.
[xc] RF Gould, ‘Military Masonry’, in Freemasons Chronicle, 1 Jan, 1880, p.4, and ‘Military Lodges’, in Freemasons Chronicle, 1 July, 1880, p.2.
[xci] J Harland-Jacobs, Builders of Empire, Temple Hill Press, 2007, p.33.
[xcii] DM Lyon, History of the Lodge Of Edinburgh (Mary’s Chapel), No 1, Gresham, 1900, pp.204-9; and at pp.187-192 in the 1859 edn; WA Laurie, History of Free Masonry and the Grand Lodge of Scotland, 1859; pp.178-9.
[xciii] R Rea, The English Press in Politics 1760-1774, U of Nebraska, 1963, p.23.
[xciv] R Rea, The English Press in Politics 1760-1774, U of Nebraska Press, 1963, pp.26-7.
[xcv] J Brewer, Party Ideology and Popular Politics at the Ascension of George III, CUP, 1976, espec Ch 9, espec. p.194.
[xcvi] See W. Rubenstein, ‘The End of “Old Corruption” in Britain, 1780-1860’, Past and Present, No 101, Nov, 1983; P Harling, ‘Rethinking “Old Corruption”, Past and Present, No 147, May, 1995.
[xcvii] D Worrall, Radical Culture, Wayne State College Press, 1992, p.7.
[xcviii] D Erdman, Blake: Prophet Against Empire, Doubleday, 2nd edn 1969, p.49.
[xcix] P Roth, Masonry in the Formation of Our Government, 1761-1799, 1927, p.15.
[c] H Stillson (Chief editor), History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, and Concordant Orders, Boston, revised 1898.
[ci] See whole issue of Lumieres, No 22, Bordeaux UP, 2014.
[cii] WJ Fitzpatrick, Secret Service Under Pitt, 1892.
[ciii] J Robison, Proofs of a Conspiracy..etc, 1797; A Baruel, Memoires pour servir a l’histoire du jacobinisme, 1797. For relevant discussion see, J Harlan-Jacob, Builders of Empire, U of Nth Carolina, 2007, p.138.
[civ] Lord Roseberry, Pitt, Macmillan, 1910, p.167.
[cv] M Van Vlack, Silas Deane Revolutionary War Diplomat and Politician, McFarland, 2014.
[cvi] J Haswell, Spies and Spymasters, Thames & Hudson, 1977, pp.56-7.
[cvii] See T Schaeper, Edward Bancroft – Scientist, Author, Spy, Yale, 2011.
[cviii] Letter 433, 31 Dec, 1777, p.109; Letter 511, 14 July, 1788, Correspondence from King George III to Lord North, Vol 2, various edns.
[cix] S Bernis, ‘British Secret Service and the French-American Alliance’, Amer Hist Review, April, 1924, pp.474-495.
[cx] Mirabeau’s Secret History of the Court of Berlin reviewed by R Johnston, ‘Mirabeau’s Secret Mission to Berlin’, American Historical Review, V 6, No 2, 1901, pp.240-1.
[cxi] K Jensen, Revolution and the Antiquarian Book: Re-Shaping the Past, 1780-1815, Cambridge, 2014.
[cxii] ‘Oration on Masonry’, Freemasons Magazine, Aug, 1793. Robison’s book was reviewed in Freemason’s Magazine in November, 1797, and no doubt elsewhere.
[cxiii] F Gilbert, The “New Diplomacy” of the Eighteenth Century, 1951; L & M Frey, ‘The Reign of the Charlatans is Over – the French Revolutionary Attack on Diplomatic Practice’, Jnl of Modern History, Vol65, No 4, Dec, 1993
[cxiv] J Harland-Jacobs, Builders of Empire, Chapel Hill, 2007, p.137.
[cxv] D Erdman, Blake: Prophet Against Empire, Doubleday, 2nd edn 1969, p.13.
[cxvi] Freemasons Magazine, July, 1794, pp.4-6.
[cxvii] ‘Declaration of Loyalty from Grand Lodge, 6 February, 1793,’ The Freemasons Magazine, Vol 1, June, 1793, p.17.
[cxviii] For ‘Lord Malmesbury’s Embassy’, see from 1793; ‘House of Commons’, The Freemasons Magazine, Feb, 1797, p.57.
[cxix] ‘Chronological Account of the Principal Occurrences’, The Freemasons Magazine, Dec, 1798, p.135.
[cxx] ‘Biographical Sketch of HRH Prince Wm Frederick of Gloucester’, The Scientific Magazine and Freemasons Repository, July, 1797, p.4. In 1816 he married a daughter of George III becoming the sovereign’s son-in-law while also being his nephew.
[cxxi] M Durey, ‘Lord Glenville and ‘the Smoking Gun’ – the Plot to Assassinate the French Directory in 1798-99 Reconsidered’, The Historical Journal, Vol 45, 2002, pp.547-568.
[cxxii] B Hilton, A Mad, Bad and Dangerous People?, Clarendon, 2006, p.44, p.51, quoting H Barker, Newspapers, Politics and Public Opinion in Eighteenth Century England, OUP, 1998, p.23; L Werkmeister, The London Daily Press, 1772-1792, Nebraska, 1963, pp.78-108, 139, 268, 317-8, 331; A Aspinall, Politics and the Press, c1780-1850, 1949, pp.126-7.
[cxxiii] D Ginter, Whig Organisationin the General Election of 1790, Calif, 1967, and ‘The Financing of the Whig Party Organisation’, 1783-1793’, Amer Hist Review, 71, 1965-6, pp.421-40. See also A Aspinall, Politics and the Press, 1780-1850, p.68, quoted in Waterloo Register of English Newspapers and Periodicals, 1800-1900, Series 2, Vol 4.
[cxxiv] Quotes and commentary in J Barrell, The Spirit of Despotism: Invasions of Privacy in the 1790’s, OUP, 2006, pp.5-7.
[cxxv] J Keane, Tom Paine A Political Life, Bloomsbury, 1996, pp.334-337.
[cxxvi] N Rogers, ‘Burning Tom Paine: Loyalism and Counter-Revolution in Britain, 1792-3’, Social History,1997, pp.169-171, or his Crowds, Culture and Politics in Georgian Britain, Clarendon, 1998. Hilton, 2006, refers to ‘an official press campaign to discredit Paine’, p.69.
[cxxvii] Aspinall, 1949, pp.68-9, 78-9, 203-6; L Werkmeister, A Newspaper History of England, 1792-3, Nebraska, 1967, pp.118-9, 170-2; Archbishop John Moore to Auckland, 22 May, 1792, in Auckland, Journal, ii, pp.407-8
[cxxviii] Hilton, 2006, p.69 quoting R Dozier, For King, Constitution and Country: The English Loyalists and the French Revolution, Kentucky, 1983, pp.51-4; Ehrman, ii, 213-17; E Sparrow, ‘The Alien Office, 1792-1806’, HJ, 33, 1990, 361-84.
[cxxix] A Cobban, ‘British Secret Service in France’, Eng Hist Review, Vol 69, April, 1954, pp.226-261.
[cxxx][cxxx] K Johnston, The Hidden Wordsworth, Norton, 1998, fn, p.433.
[cxxxi] A Cobban, Ambassadors and Secret Agents: The Diplomacy of the First Earrl of Malmesbury at the Hague, Cape, 1954, p.110.
[cxxxii] Hilton, 2006, p.84-5, quoting E Sparrow, Secret Service: British Agents in France, 1792-1815, Woodbridge, 1997, pp.217-22, pp.169-71; H Mitchell, The Underground War Against Revolutionary France – The Mission of William Wickham, 1794-1800, OUP, 1965, pp.237-43.
[cxxxiii] E Bruce, Napoleon and Josephine, Phoenix, 1995, p.249.
[cxxxiv] Perhaps an agent of Canning’s rather than ‘the government’ as a whole – C Duckworth, The D’Antraigue Phenomenon, Avero, 1986, pp.194-5, pp.206-217.
[cxxxv] RH Gronow, Reminiscences of Captain Gronow, London, 1862.
[cxxxvi] P Stern, The Company State, OUP, 2011, has one sentence on the ‘Secret Committee’, p.71
[cxxxvii] CH Philips, The East India Company, 1784-1834, Univ of Manchester, 1961 (1st edn 1940), pp.30-31.
[cxxxviii] R Knight, Britain Against Napoleon, Allen Lane, 2013, p.145.
[cxxxix] A Prescott, ‘A Body Without a Soul? The Philosophical Outlook of British Freemasonry 1700-2000’, paper to conferences, 2003, p.4, (available at Pietre-Stones website).
[cxl] C Macdonald, Warren The Bond of Brotherhood, Self-published, Singapore, 2007, p.10+.
[cxli] E Kedourie, Afghani and Abduh, Cass, 1966, p.21.
[cxlii] R Gould, The History of Freemasonry, Vol III, Edinburgh, nd, p.343, and fn, quoting from The Times, 27 Sept, 1881.
[cxliii] E Kedourie, ‘Religion and Politics: the Diaries of Khalil Sakahini’, St Anthony’s Papers, Vol 4, 1958, p.81.
[cxliv] M Edney, Mapping the Empire, U of Chicago, 1997, p.1.
[cxlv] W Dalrymple, White Mughals, Harper, 2002, p.103, pp.137-8.
[cxlvi] A Ward, Our Bones Are Scattered, Murray, 1996, p.104.
[cxlvii] ‘India’, Freemason Quarterly Review, June, 1839, p.145 .
[cxlviii] H Brands, The First American, Anchor, 2000, pp.608-11 (Bancroft); p.113, pp.613-15 (Franklin).
[cxlix] The Life of Sir Robert Wilson, Vol 1, London, 1862, p.193.
[cl] Raffles to Minto, June 1811, quoted in V Glendinning, Raffles and the Golden Opportunity, Profile, 2012, p.84.
[cli] See a typical Masonic version of this story by C Haffner, ‘Eastern Masonic Frontiers Before the Union’, AQC, Vol 104, 1991, pp.24-27.
[clii] V Glendinning, Raffles and the Golden Opportunity, Profile, 2012, p.130.
[cliii] T Hannigan, Raffles and the British Invasion of Java, Monsoon, 2012, pp.231-2.
[cliv] An exemplar of the same attitudes who was neither ruthless nor a Mason was securing Ceylon for the Empire. John D’Oyley, 1774-1824, used guile and extensive intelligence-gathering networks to subdue the Kandyan King in his mountain stronghold without firing a shot. See B & Y Gooneratne, This Inscrutable Englishman, Cassell, 1999.
[clv] R Gould, The History of Freemasonry, Vol III, Edinburgh, nd, p.338.
[clvi] B Wilson, Decency and Disorder, 1789-1837, Faber & Faber, 2007, p.177.
[clvii] H Algar, ‘An Introduction to the History of Freemasonry in Iran’, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol 6, No 3, Oct, 1970, pp.276-296.
[clviii] W Dalrymple, White Mughals, Harper Press, 2002, p.46.
[clix] Refer JS Curl, Art and Architecture of Freemasonry, Batsford, 2002; S Moser, Designing Antiquity, Yale, 2012; ‘Cleopatra’s Needle in London’, The Freemason, 9 Feb, 1878, p.17.
[clx] See papers, incl PRO 30/57/5, ‘Sinai Peninsula Survey and London Politics’, Kitchener Papers, 1884. The Royal Engineers trace their origins back to the military engineers brought to England by William the Conqueror, claim over 900 years of unbroken service to the crown The origins of the modern corps lie in the Board of Ordnance established in the 15th century and which in 1717 established a Corps of Engineers, consisting entirely of commissioned officers. In 1787, the Corps of Engineers was granted the Royal prefix. In 1855 the Board of Ordnance was abolished and authority over the Royal Engineers, Royal Sappers and Miners and Royal Artillery was transferred to the Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, thus uniting them with the rest of the Army. The following year, the Royal Engineers and Royal Sappers and Miners became a unified corps as the Corps of Royal Engineers. In 1862 the corps also absorbed the British officers and men of the engineer corps of the East India Company. – this info from Wikipedia, Feb, 2014.
[clxi] M Edney, Mapping the Empire, U of Chicago, 1997, p.10.
[clxii] Morning Chronicle, 8 April, 1809.
[clxiii] H Vibart, Addiscombe – Its Heroes and Men of Note, Constable, 1894, p.90.
[clxiv] N Etherington, ‘Introduction’, Mapping Colonial Conquest, UWAP, 2007, p.1.
[clxv] J Harrington, Sir John Malcolm and the Making of British India, Palgrave, 2010, p.190, p.2.
[clxvi] R Burton, First Footsteps into Africa, Konemann, 2000, pp. 13-14.
[clxvii] ‘Chardstock –Great Festival’, Freemasons’ Quarterly Review, Sept, 1848, p.66.
[clxviii] Sandbach, Priest and Freemason, 1988, p.141.
[clxix] P Monod, ‘Thomas Carte, the Druids and British National Identity’, in Monod, Pittock & Szechi, Loyalty and Identity: Jacobites at Home and Abroad, Palgrave, 2010, p.136. See also A Prescott, 2003 paper ‘A Body Without a Soul?’.
[clxx] P James, ‘The Grand Mastership of the Duke of Sussex, 1813-1843’, AQC, Vol 75, 1962, p.37, p.53.
[clxxi] Letter, Sussex to Rev Clarke, undated in The Christian Observer, May, 1843, p.314.
[clxxii] Ed Note, ‘The Duke of Sussex and a Hebrew Poem’, AQC, Vol 75, 1962, p.58.
[clxxiii] The Standard, 24 Oct, 1833.
[clxxiv] Christian Observer, June, 1842, p.387; Aug, 1842, p.512.
[clxxv] West Kent Guardian, 10 Aug, 1844.
[clxxvi] Morning Chronicle, 27 June, 1844; see also Northern Star, 22 June, 1844, for long report of HoC debate on ‘Post Office Espionage’; West Kent Guardian, 10 August, 1844 ‘Post Office Espionage’.
[clxxvii] Morning Chronicle, 15 July, 1856.
[clxxviii] P Selth, ‘A Splendid Type of the Genuine English Gentleman’: Sir Frederick Pottinger, 1831-1865, Canberra Historical Society Journal, March, 1974, p.20; J Ure’s excellent precis of Pottinger’s memoirs are at ‘Henry Pottinger – The Make-Believe Holy Man’, in Shooting Leave, Constable, 2009, pp.1-19. Tom Pottinger died in the 1842 retreat from Kabul, while Eldred Pottinger survived.
[clxxix] ‘Sir Henry Pottinger’, Carlisle Journal, 4 Jan, 1845.
[clxxx] P Hopkirk, Quest for Kim, p.20. Elphinstone later wrote ‘An Account of the Kingdom of Caboul’.
[clxxxi] R Perry, The Queen, Her Lover and the Most Notorious Spy in History, A&U, 2014, p.105.
[clxxxii] Freemasons Quarterly Review, June, 1841, p.123, where see E’s installation, and June, 1839, p.145, where see quote.
[clxxxiii] M Downer, The Queen’s Knight, Bantam, 2007.
[clxxxiv] P Hopkirk, The Great Game, Kodansha, 1990, p.1 for first 3 quotes.
[clxxxv] Stoddart to ‘Capt Washington, 14 March, 1837’, copy from RGS, 8/2014. Atlas referred to was probably one of Aaron Arrowsmith’s, produced in London, from 1828.
[clxxxvi] J Harlan, A Memoir of India and Afghanistan, 1842, Philadelphia, pp.12, 16.
[clxxxvii] ‘Obituary’, Freemason’s Quarterly Review, March, 1842, p.68.
[clxxxviii] Many of the details, in this and previous paragraph, are in G Pottinger, An Afghan Connection, 1983.
[clxxxix] Wolff letter to Morning Herald, and dated 2 July, 1843, quoted in Meyer and Brysac, Tournament of Shadows, Counterpoint, 1999, p.129.
[cxc] See potted Wolff biography at Christian Observer, Jan, 1842.
[cxci] A Capt Codrington died at Kabul in 1842 massacre. See G Pottinger, An Afghan Connection, 1983, p.129.
[cxcii] West Kent Guardian, 30 Dec, 1843,
[cxciii] J Wolff, Narrative of a Mission to Bokhara, pp.132, 246.
[cxciv] J Wolff, Missionary Journal of the Reverend Joseph Wolff, 1829, iii, 87; and Researches and Missionary Labours Among the Jews, Mohammedans and Other Sects, 1835, p.41.
[cxcv] Freemason Quarterly Review, June, 1848, p.98.
[cxcvi] London Standard, 9 Feb, 1843.
[cxcvii] Inverness Courier, 24 Jan, 1844.
[cxcviii] ‘News of Some European Travellers Killed in Central Asia in Last Twenty Years’, sent to RGS with covering note, by ‘G Nuhlewein’, before being sent to Gen Rawlinson, 6 Feb, 1861, for comment.
[cxcix] G Pottinger, The Afghan Connection The Extraordinary Adventures of Major Eldred Pottinger, Scottish Academic Press, 1983.
[cc] ‘Arrival of the Overland Mail’, The Era, 9 Oct, 1842.
[cci] R Sandbach, quoting G Oliver’s ‘Valedictory Address’, 1850, in Priest and Freemason the Life of George Oliver, Aquarian, 1988, p.33. (There is no relation or connection between Dr Oliver and ‘Oliver the spy’.)
[ccii] Oliver is one of the first to describe Freemasonry as a ‘science’ – see R Sandbach, Priest and Freemason, Antiquarian, 1988, p.151.
[cciii] ‘The Connection Between Freemasonry and True Religion – Address to Lodge Greenlaw by Dist G Warden Simner’, FM&MM, Sept, 1870, p.3.
[cciv] Dr G Oliver, ‘On Freemasonry’, in Freemason Quarterly Review, March, 1842, p.30.
[ccv] Editorial, ‘Freemasonry in China’, Freemasonry’s Quarterly Review, June, 1845, from p.163.
[ccvi] AQC, Vol II, p.83.
[ccvii] R Sandbach, Priest and Freemason The Life of George Oliver, Aquarian, 1988, p.44.
[ccviii] S Sommers, ‘Robert Thomas Crucefix Redux’, JRFF, Vol 3, No 1, 2012, argues Crucefix was a ‘quack doctor’ fraudulently obtaining money for questionable medical services.
[ccix] Sandbach, 1988, as above, pp.60-1.
[ccx] See Oliver, ‘Obituary – Memoir of Dr Robert Thomas Crucefix’, FQR, Dec, 1850, from p.497.
[ccxi] R Sandbach, ‘Robert Thomas Crucefix 1788-1850’, AQC, Vol 102, (1989), p.150.
[ccxii] T Larsen, Contested Christianity: The Political and Social Context of Victorian Theology, Baylor Univ Press, 2004, p.3.
[ccxiii] Freemasons Quarterly Review, 30 Sept, 1837, pp.360-363.
[ccxiv] ‘Notes on Masonry in Bengal’, FQR, Dec, 1838, pp.465.
[ccxv] FQR, June, 1843, has Sussex Obituaries, and Crucefix reiteration of the charge, as well as remarks about dead King, and the ‘Maiden Queen.’
[ccxvi] Gleig, George R, Sale’s Brigade in Afghanistan, John Murray, 1879, p. 181.
[ccxvii] The Christian Observer, May, 1842, p.317.
[ccxviii] The Christian Observer, 1842, p.814.
[ccxix] ‘Political Summary of the Week’, Leeds Times, 13 Feb, 1841.
[ccxx] The Christian Observer, May, 1842, p.319.
[ccxxi] V Forbes & M Hercock, ‘Charting the Way to Empire – the Hydrographic Office’, in N Etherington, 2007, as above, p.39.
[ccxxii] S Rose, For All the Tea in China, Hutchinson, 2009.
[ccxxiii] R Burton, First Steps in East Africa, Koneman Travel Classics, 2000, p.13.
[ccxxiv] FM&MM, Sept, 1859, p.5.
[ccxxv] J Gooding, ‘The Politics of a Panorama’, in N Etherington (ed), Mapping Colonial Conquest – Australia and Southern Africa, UWAP, 2007, p.74.
[ccxxvi] M Lovell, A Rage to Live, Abacus, p.50.
[ccxxvii] H Lumsden, Lumsden of the Guides, letter home, 15 April, 1849, p.56.
[ccxxviii] ‘The Mahommedan Secret Societies’, in Pall Mall Gazette, 18 May, 1877.
[ccxxix] R Burton, The Arabian Nights, Modern Library, 2001, p.v; F Brodie, The Devil Drives, Penguin, 1971, p.67; S Dearden, The Arabian Knight, Baker, 1936, p.18.
[ccxxx] I Burton, Life of Captain Richard Burton, Vol 1, p.141.
[ccxxxi] R Burton, First Steps in East Africa, Ch 1, np.
[ccxxxii] M Campos, ‘Freemasonry in Ottoman Palestine’, Jerusalem Quarterly, 22/23, pp.39-40.
[ccxxxiii] H Algar, ‘An Introduction to the History of Freemasonry in Iran’, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol 6, No 3, Oct, 1970, pp.276-296.
[ccxxxiv] Blunt’s Secret History (1907), quoted in M Berdine, The Accidental Tourist, Routledge, 2005, p.15.
[ccxxxv] K Wissa, ‘Freemasonry in Egypt, 1798-1921: A Study in Cultural and Political Encounters’, Bulletin (British Society for Middle East Studies), V 16, No 2, 1989, pp.143-161.
[ccxxxvi] ‘Freemasonry and Politics’, The Freemason, May 1869.
[ccxxxvii] Information in this paragraph from J Ninet,, ‘Origin of the National Party in Egypt’, Nineteenth Century, Jan, 1883, p.126.
[ccxxxviii] P Hopkirk, The Great Game, Kodansha, 1990, p.5.
[ccxxxix] P Lumsden, Lumsden of the Guides, Murray, London, 1900; F Burnaby, A Ride to Khiva, Cassell Petter and Galpin, 1877, p.328.
[ccxl] ‘Notes’, The Freemason, 1 Dec, 1880, p.4.
[ccxli] D Weller, The Pundits, UP of Kentucky, 2004, p.1 and subsq.
[ccxlii] ‘Obituary Death of Jacob of Simla’, The Times, 17 Jan, 1921, p.14. See P Hopkirk, Quest for Kim, p.123.
[ccxliii] J Daniels, ‘Dr Robert Hamilton, in T Pope (ed), Masonic Networks and Connections, ANZMRC, 2007, p.111.
[ccxliv] Zetland to Oliver, 29 July, 1843, quoted in R Sandbach, Priest and Freemason, Aquarian, 1988, p.37.
[ccxlv] H Melville, ‘Henricus’, The Lost Mysteries of Freemasonry, Sydney, 5857 (1857), p.viii. A letter from him, dated 23 March, 1866 at ‘Hobart Town’ to the Scottish Freemasons Magazine, and reprinted FM&MM, June 1866, p.6, says letters by him and his friends to Scottish GL ‘have met with silence.’
[ccxlvi] A Prescott, ‘A Body Without a Soul? The Philosophical Outlook of British Freemasonry 1700-2000’, a paper to Canonbury Research Centre Conference, Nov-Dec, 2003, p.1, this copy from <pietre-stones>.
[ccxlvii] See FM&MM, Aug, 1855, p.524, for report of Lodge Bon Accord meeting.
[ccxlviii] R Gould, History of United Grand Lodge of England, 1815-1885’, The History of Freemasonry, Vol III, Jack, Edinburgh, p.23. The whole story is complex and interested readers should look at the 2006 collection, Marking Well.
[ccxlix] Access to his approach is easiest through J Daniel, Masonic Networks and Connections, ANZMRC, 2007.
[ccl] A Prescott, ‘Well Marked? Approaches to the History of Mark Masonry’, in A Prescott (ed), Marking Well, Lewis, 2006, p.24.
[ccli] A Prescott, ‘Well Marked? Approaches to the History of Mark Masonry’, Marking Well, Lewis Masonic, 2006, p.21.
[cclii] A Newman, ‘Masonic Controversy and The Freemasons’ Magazine’, AQC, Vol 122, p.190. See also R Sandbach, ‘Robert Thomas Crucefix, 1788-1850’, and J Hamill, ‘The Sins of Our Masonic Fathers’, both in AQC Vol 102, 1989, p.134, and p.247, respectively.
[ccliii] ‘The Ark and Mark Degrees’, The Masonic Examiner, 2 Oct, 1870, p.1. The phrase ‘hangman’s knot’ refers to the thirteen pence halfpenny paid to the hangman Jack Ketch in pre-GL days when this amount was charged for conferral of the ‘Ark, Mark, Link and Wressle’ degrees and which were therefore called collectively ‘the hangman’s knot.’
[ccliv] After his death, nevertheless, his widow had to wade through Masonic red tape to obtain minimal relief.
[cclv] FM&MM, March, 1856, p.191.
[cclvi] See accounts of these events in A Prescott (ed), Marking Well, Lewis Masonic, 2006, espec pp. 20-21 and 140-141.
[cclvii] See J Daniel biography of him ‘from Rebel to Ruler’, in A Prescott (ed), Marking Well, Lewis Masonic, 2006, pp.135-159, and other refs in this title.
[cclviii] J Daniel, ‘Canon George Raymond Portal, MA (1827-1889): from Rebel to Ruler’, in A Prescott (ed), Marking Well, Lewis Masonic, 2006, p.138.
[cclix] A Newman, ‘The Invention of a Mark Province, 1858-1894’, in A Prescott (ed), Marking Well, Lewis Masonic, 2006, pp.160-170.
[cclx] Editorial and ‘Report of Grand Lodge Meeting’, Masonic Observer, 1 Nov, 1856, p.1.
[cclxi] An anonymous, critical pamphlet was published in full by The Times and The Era which see 29 Jan, 1854.
[cclxii] ‘Foreword’, Wolfgang Prince of Hesse, in Sinclair, The Other Victoria, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1981, p.xi.
[cclxiii][cclxiii] Masonic Mirror, obit of Duke Atholl, March, 1862, p.11.
[cclxiv] ‘Imperial Parliament’, Masonic Mirror, 1855, p.43.
[cclxv] ‘Dean Trench’s Sermon’, Morning Star, 10 Oct, 1857; ‘The Bishop of Victoria on the Opium Trade’, Morning Star, 1 April, 1857.
[cclxvi] Hereford Times, 27 June, 1857.
[cclxvii] ‘PM’ (Editor?), ‘Masonic Archives and Masonic Library’, FM&MM, 29 July, 1865, p.91. The argument in extended form at 26 August, 1865, p.168.
[cclxviii] The following information on the Victoria Institute taken from ‘The Victoria Institute – 1874’, shown as Pamphlet 7 in bound collection, Masonic Pamphlets, Vol 7, UGLE. Copy at London Freemasons Museum and Library.
[cclxix] Pamphlets 7 and 8 in Masonic Pamphlets, Vol 7, UGLE.
[cclxx] Warren, response to toast after his installation, ARS Quatuor Coronaturum, Vol 1, 1886, p.8; see note at Howe, p.258, fn 3.
[cclxxi] See AH Sayce, “Higher Criticism” and the Verdict of the Monuments, London, Socy for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1894.
[cclxxii] This is the later Sir George Grove, 1819-1900, of the Dictionary of Music fame – see obits in The Era, 2 June, 1900, and The Graphic, same date.
[cclxxiii] ‘Topographical Department’, Morning Post, 15 April, 1865.
[cclxxiv] ‘Palestine Exploration Fund’, Morning Post, 14 June, 1869; Lecture to the Royal Institution, Pr Albert in the chair, Morning Post, 17 Feb, 1866. See for ‘Burdett Coutts’, talk to Socy for Encouragement of the Fine Arts, Morning Post, 1 June, 1868.
[cclxxv] T Ferguson, British Military Intelligence, 1870-1974, Univ Publs of America, 1984, p.41.
[cclxxvi] C Wilson, ‘On the Ordnance Survey of Sinai’, Freemason’s Magazine and Masonic Mirror, 6 August, 1870, p.105.
[cclxxvii] See comment by M McLeod following A Jackson, ‘Sir Charles Warren’, AQC, Vol 99, (1986), p.184.
[cclxxviii] EH Palmer, The Desert of the Exodus, PEF, 1872, p.389.
[cclxxix] A Scholch, ‘Britain in Palestine, 1838-1882 – Roots of the Balfour Policy’, Jnl of Palestine Studies, p.50.
[cclxxx] See Drake obit, and review of Besant’s book at Morning Post, 16 August, 1877.
[cclxxxi] J Pollock, Kitchener: The Road to Omdurman, Constable, 1998, pp.21-28; p.43
[cclxxxii] B MacHaffie, “Monumental Facts and Higher Critical Fancies”: Archaeology and the Popularisation of Old Testament Criticism in Nineteenth Century Britain,’ Church History 50,1981, p.324.
[cclxxxiii] W Besant, Thirty Years in the Holy Land, Published for the PEF, London, 1895, p.12.
[cclxxxiv] Palestine Exploration Fund, (Walter Besant), Palestine Exploration Fund, nd, text implies 1876, London, p.1.
[cclxxxv] ‘Henricus’, to Freemasons Magazine and Masonic Mirror, 19 Jan, 1867, p.49.
[cclxxxvi] W Besant & EH Palmer, Jerusalem, the City of Herod and Saladin, London, 1899,(4th edn), pp.522-5.
[cclxxxvii] R Morris, Freemasonry in the Holy Land, 1876, pp.419-427.
[cclxxxviii] See C Macdonald, Warren, Singapore, 2007, pp.56-60, for a report.
[cclxxxix] H Shanks, Jerusalem An Archeological Biography, Random House, 1995, p.14.
[ccxc] Quoted by Gould, 8 November, 1887, AQC, Vol 1, p.72.
[ccxci] ‘Masonic Archeological Institute’, The Building News, 5 February, 1869, p.110.
[ccxcii] The Era, 21 Feb, 1869; Masonic Mirror, Aug, 1868, p.4.
[ccxciii] See Masonic Mirror, July, 1861, p.1 for an extensive and quite extraordinary biography when he was still only 46 yrs.
[ccxciv] See reference at top of book review previously cited, The Freemason, 28 Aug, 1869, p.1.
[ccxcv] W Simpson, ‘Masonic Archeological Institute’, AQC, Vol 2, pp.124, 128-130.
[ccxcvi] W Besant, ‘Masonic Archeological Institute’, AQC, Vol 2, p.158.
[ccxcvii] Examples in The Freemason appear at 16 Sept, 1876- ‘Yorkshire Archeological Society’, and ‘Archeology’ a long article about gild records.
[ccxcviii] W Simpson, AQC, Vol 1, Pt 6 (?), 27 December, 1888, p.3.
[ccxcix] AQC, Vol 1, 1886, p.8.
[ccc] D Clements, ‘A Masonic Emporium’, Freemasonry Today, 1 Sept, 2010.
[ccci] Wikipedia, ‘Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, 1819-1904’, 4 August, 2015.
[cccii] A Prescott, “‘The Cause of Humanity’: Charles Bradlaugh and Freemasonry”, AQC, Vol 116 (2003), p.25.
[ccciii] K Jackson, ‘William James Hughan’, AQC, Vol 114, 2001, p.99.
[ccciv] ‘Address by Sir Knight RW Little…etc’, The Freemason, Vol 1, No 1, pp.6-7.
[cccv] WJ Hughan, ‘The Red Cross and Masonic Chivalric Degrees’, The Freemason, 23 April, 1870, p.2.
[cccvi] Editorial, ‘The High Degrees’, The Freemason, 11 Dec, 1869, p.6.
[cccvii] WJ Hughan, ‘Knight Templar Jottings’, The Freemason, 4 June, 1870, p.1.
[cccviii] ‘Union Between the Unrecognised Degrees’, The Freemason, 23 July, 1870, p.5.
[cccix] ‘The Unrecognised Degrees’, The Freemason, 10 June, 1871, p.9.
[cccx] The Freemason, March and May, 1871.
[cccxi] Sgd ‘A Mason Who Believes in his Obligation’, ‘Insubordination in the High Degrees’, The FM&MM. March, 1871, p.8.
[cccxii] Woodford, ‘United Grand Lodge’, The Freemason, 8 June, 1872, p.6.
[cccxiii] Woodford, ‘A Contrast’, The Freemason, 14 Oct, 1871, p.7.
[cccxiv] ‘Liberty versus Licence’, The Freemason, 16 Dec, 1871, p.7.
[cccxv] ‘Knight Errant’, The Freemason, 11 Feb, 1871.
[cccxvi] ‘The Mark Degree and the Cryptic Rite’, 26 Aug, 1871, p.8, and ‘A Contrast’, 14 Oct, 1871, p.6, both leading articles in The Freemason.
[cccxvii] ‘Freemasons’, London Daily News, 5 July, 1871.
[cccxviii] The Freemason, quoted widely, eg, the Isle of Man Times, 19 Sept, 1874.
[cccxix] The Times, 8 Sept, 1874, quoted in J Daniel, ‘Anglo-American Relations’, in T Pope (ed), Masonic Networks and Connections, ANZMRC, 2007, p.102.
[cccxx] Westminster Review quoted by Derby Mercury 16 Sept, 1874; ‘Religion and Politics’ in Pall Mall Gazette, 18 Sept, 1874, p.10; The Saturday Review, quoted widely including at Royal Cornwall Gazette, 19 Sept, 1874; J Daniel, ‘ Grand Lodges in British Colonies’, in J Daniel, Masonic Networks and Connections, ANZMRC, Melbourne, 2007, p.169, and Ch 5.
[cccxxi] For Carnarvon and the military metaphor see The Hampshire Advertiser, 10 Oct, 1874 – he was presiding at the Annual Meeting of the Highclerc Agricultural Association at Newbury; for Catholic commentary see The Westminster Review, which described EF as ‘the ‘craft” of the evil one’, and response at The Derby Mercury, quoting the WR, 16 Sept, 1874; for summary of Ripon’s career see Nottinghamshire Guardian, 18 Sept, 1874, which quotes The Liverpool Post, the London Post. See ‘Father Foy on Secret Societies’ for an EF response to a long RC article linking Disraeli’s unease with Ripon’s resignation – Masonic Magazine, 1 Dec, 1876, p.5
[cccxxii] Carnarvon to Somerset Provincial GL mtg and banquet, report at The Times, 18 May, 1883, p.9
[cccxxiii] What follows here is a distillation from the numerous bizarre ‘histories’ on-line and elsewhere. It attempts to link what appear to be the agreed-upon bits in woo-zoo land with researchers I take to be soundly-based. This does not mean that I fully endorse the story found in academic-published accounts, nor that I entirely discount the possibility that there may be something in some of the claims made by woo-zoo landers.
[cccxxiv] ‘A New Order’, FM&MM, 17 March, 1860, p.210.
[cccxxv] ‘A Lewis’, ‘Masonry and Secularism’, The Freemason, 2 Oct, 1869.
[cccxxvi] ‘At Home and Abroad’, The Freemason, Dec, 1869, p.6.
[cccxxvii] Obituary, New England Freemason, Vol 1, No 5, May 1874, p.246.
[cccxxviii] W Hughan, ‘Masonic Historians No 1 Bro Findel’, The Freemason, 1, 8, 15 Jan, and 5 Feb, 1870.
[cccxxix] J Findel, History of Freemasonry from its Roots down to the Present Day, 2nd edn, translated into English and published in London, 1866, quote from p.6.
[cccxxx] ‘Freemasonry in France – Address of Bro L Babaud-Laribier’, FM&MM, 31 July, 1870, pp.84-88.
[cccxxxi] FM&MM, Vol 24, March, 1871, pp.182-3.
[cccxxxii] ‘Sanitorium at Weston-Super-Mare’, The Freemason, 3 June 1871.
[cccxxxiii] (Carnarvon), ‘Lessons of the French Revolution’, Quarterly Review, Vol 135 No.269, July 1873.
[cccxxxiv] ‘The Visit of the Czar’, The Freemason, 23 May, 1874, p.4.
[cccxxxv] The Freemasons Chronicle, 2 Jan, 1875, p.1, quoted in A Prescott, ‘The Cause of Humanity’, AQC, Vol 116 (2003), p.25.
[cccxxxvi] R Gould, ‘History of the United Grand Lodge of England, 1815-1885’, The History of Freemasonry, Vol III, Jack, Edinburgh, nd (1886?) fn.2, p.26.
[cccxxxvii] J Ramsey, “The Grand Orient of France and the Three Great Lights”, The Builder, Iowa : January 1918.
[cccxxxviii] ‘Die Bauhutte’, The Freemason, 25 May, 1878.
[cccxxxix] Howe, AQC, Vol 85, p.243, and fn.1.
[cccxl] E Kedourie, Afghani and Abduh, Cass, 1966, p.22.
[cccxli] R McBean, A Complete History of the Ancient and Primitive Rite, (on-line).
[cccxlii] AM Broadley, How We Defended Arabi, London, 1885, pp.261-2.
[cccxliii] F Stevenson Drane, ‘Freemasonry in Egypt, Part II’, AQC, Vol 82, 1969, p.53; M Berdine, The Accidental Tourist, Routledge, 2005, p.67.
[cccxliv] See A Kudu-Zadeh, ‘Afghani and Freemasonry in Egypt’, Jnl of the American Oriental Society, Vol 92, No 1, Jan-March, 1972, p.30
[cccxlv] See the Freemasons Chronicle for the reports, eg at Feb, 1880, p.9, March, 1881, p.7, and a summary of his ‘personal exertions’ to that point at Aug, 1879, p.1.
[cccxlvi] C Macdonald, Warren, Singapore, 2007, pp.90-93.
[cccxlvii] J Ure, Shooting Leave, Constable, 2009, pp.114-132, quote at p.127.
[cccxlviii] Letters, The Times, 16, (p.7), 18, 23 Oct, 1882. For reference to ‘Naval Authorities’ in Parlt Debate, see 31 Oct, 1882, p.9 and editorial at 25 Dec, 1882, p.7. A grandson of WS Blunt, Anthony Blunt, warned Soviet spy, Philby, in the 1930’s but was himself protected from prosecution.
[cccxlix] W Besant, The Life and Achievements of Edward Henry Palmer, London, 1883, p.305.
[cccl] W Besant, Autobiography, 1902, p.155.
[cccli] The Times, letter from Lord Wentworth, 19 March, 1883; Blunt piece, same date.
[ccclii] The Times, 19, 27, 31 Oct, 25 Dec, 1882, 6, 7, 10, 17, 19 March, 1883, letters from Blunt countering government ‘spin’, from anti-Blunts, and Editorials.
[cccliii] WS Blunt, Gordon at Khartoum, Routledge, 1912, pp.22-23.
[cccliv] E Longford, A Pilgrimage of Passion, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1979, pp.174-187.
[ccclv] WS Blunt, Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt Being a Personal Narrative of Events, London, 1907, p.303.
[ccclvi] R Baden-Powell, My Adventures as a Spy, Pearson, 1915, p.11.
[ccclvii] ‘English Masonry in Egypt’, Freemasons Chronicle, Jan 4, 1883, p.4.
[ccclviii] N Keddie, Sayyid Jamal Ad-Din “Al-Afghani”: A Political Biography, U of Calif, 1972, ACLS POD, p.200.
[ccclix] See A Clayton, Forearmed, Brasseys, 1993, pp.7-8, for some details and references.
[ccclx] Kedourie quoted in B Cannon, ‘Nineteenth Century Arabic Witings on Women and Society’, Int Jnl of Middle East Studies, Nov 1985, p.482. Original in Kedourie, ‘Young Turks, Freemasons and Jews’, 1974.
[ccclxi] R Owen, ‘Managing the News’, in Lord Cromer: Victorian Imperialist, Edwardian Pro-Consul, OUP, 2004.
[ccclxii] A Clayton, Forearmed, Brasseys, 1993, p.7; ‘Obituary – Sir Charles William Wilson’, The Geographic Journal, Dec 1905, Vol 26 No 6, pp.682-4..
[ccclxiii] P Warner, Kitchener, Atheneum, 1986, p.39.
[ccclxiv] See also T Hadland, Glimpses of a Victorian Hero – William Gill Explorer and Spy, Hadland, 2002.
[ccclxv] ‘Obituary of Sir Charles William Wilson’, The Times, 26 Oct, 1905.
[ccclxvi] M Snook, Beyond the Reach of Empire, Frontline Books, 2013, pp.7-11, quotes from p.8.
[ccclxvii] A. Haynes, Man-Hunting in the Desert, being a Narrative of the Palmer Search Expedition, (1882, 1883), London, 1894, p.xx.
[ccclxviii] M Lovell, A Rage to Live, Abacus, 1998, p.671. See also p.535.
[ccclxix] See his Wikipeadia entry ‘Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquis of Dufferin…etc’ and ‘Lord Dufferin’s Excavations’, Jnl of Egyptian Archaeology, Dec 1965, Vol 51.
[ccclxx] ‘Lord Dufferin’s Report for the Re-Organisation of Egypt’, The Times, reprinted in The Otago Times, 14 April, 1883.
[ccclxxi] J Pollock, Kitchener: The Road to Omdurman, Constable, 1998, pp.54-63; P Warner, Kitchener, Atheneum, 1986, p.53.
[ccclxxii] For ‘Elphi’ refs see ‘The End of the World’, ‘Ch 30 1881’, in M Downer, The Queen’s Knight, Transworld, 2007, pp.326 +; for Gordon, see The Times, Edit, 19 Jan, 1884.
[ccclxxiii] Examples at The Times, 4 May, 1885, p.7; 7 Nov, 1885, p.12.
[ccclxxiv] W Blunt, India Under Ripon, T Fisher Unwin, 1909, pp.1-6.
[ccclxxv] A Wohl, ‘Introduction’ to A Mearn’s Bitter Cry of Outcast London, Leicester UP, 1970, p.13 – Victorian Library Reprint Series.
[ccclxxvi] E Francis and N Valman, ‘Introduction: Revisiting the Victorian East End,’ Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century, 13 (2011).
[ccclxxvii] For recent scholarship on the late-Victorian East End and women’s engagement with social reform see S Koven, Slumming: Sexual and Social Politics in Victorian London, Princeton UP, 2004; D Maltz, British Aestheticism and the Urban Working Classes, 1870-1900: Beauty for the People, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006; E Ross, Love and Toil: Motherhood in Outcast London, 1870-1918, OUP, 1993.
[ccclxxviii] J Ramsden Riley,, ‘Modern Freemasonry as a Social and Moral Reformer’, Freemasons’ Chronicle, 25 Aug, 1888.
[ccclxxix] W Besant, All Sorts and Conditions of Men, OUP reprint, 1997. For how the People’s Palace emerged from Besant’s novel and the establishment of the Beaumont Trusr, see S Joyce, Capital Offences: Geographies of Class and Crime in Victorian London, U of Virginia Press, 2003, pp.191-2; see also S Bernstein, ‘Reading Room Geographies of Late-Victorian London: The British Museum, Bloomsbury and the Peoples Palace, Mile End’, in Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century, 13, 2011.
[ccclxxx] W Besant and EH Palmer, ‘Preface to the New Edition’, (1888), Jerusalem, the City of Herod and Saladin, London, 1899, (4th edn), p.vii.
[ccclxxxi] W Besant and EH Palmer, Jerusalem, The City of Herod and Saladin, p.xi.
[ccclxxxii] W Besant, Autobiography of Sir Walter Besant, Hutchinson, 1902, p.239.
[ccclxxxiii] A Nethercot, The First Five Lives of Annie Besant, U of Chicago,, 1960, p.61.
[ccclxxxiv] A Nethercot, The First Five Lives of Annie Besant, U of Chicago, 1960, pp.51-54.
[ccclxxxv] A Nethercot, The First Five Lives of Annie Besant, U of Chicago, 1960, p.84, p.352.
[ccclxxxvi] See Ch 2, R Manvell, The Trial of Annie Besant and Charles Bradlaugh, Horizon, 1976.
[ccclxxxvii] See an excellent account of this whole episode in A Prescott, ‘”The Cause of Humanity” Charles Bradlaugh and Freemasonry’, AQC, Vol 116 (2003), p.15-64. In his 2003 paper, ‘A Body Without a Soul?’ Prescott featured John Langley an EF who did support Besant and Bradlaugh.
[ccclxxxviii] A Nethercot, The First Five Lives of Annie Besant, U of Chicago, 1960, p.156.
[ccclxxxix] A Nethercot, The First Five Lives of Annie Besant, Hart Davis, 1961, p.225, p.218.
[cccxc] ‘The Present Position of English Masonic Archeology’, The Freemason, 10 April, 1880, p.1.
[cccxci] Woodford in ‘Summary for 1880’, The Freemason, Dec, 1880, p.8.
[cccxcii] ‘A Masonic Student’, ie Woodford,
Masonic History and Historians’, The Freemason, Dec, 1881, p.6.
[cccxciii] Woodford in ‘Oration’, 12 January, 1886, AQC, Vol 1, (1886), p.3. See also ‘The Quatuor Coronati’ under ‘Masonic Notes and Queries’, The Freemason, 11 Oct, 1879, p.7; and ‘The Four Crowned Martyrs’ at 25 Oct, 1879, p.5, taken from Kessing’s Masonic Cyclopaedia, so is also by Woodford.
[cccxciv] R Evans, In Defence of History, Granta, 1997, p.26, p.93. The original Trevelyan is at ‘Clio Rediscovered’, in Clio, A Muse, 1913.
[cccxcv] G Speth, ‘The German Stonemasons’, Ch 3, The History of Freemasonry, 1882, Jack, p.108.
[cccxcvi] Speth, ‘ The Steinmetz Theory Critically Examined’, AQC, Vol 1, (1886), p.18.
[cccxcvii] ‘General Masonic Instructions’, The Masonic Star, 25 April, 1889, p.1.
[cccxcviii] G Speth, translation of B Cramer’s ‘The Origin of Freemasonry’, AQC, Vol 2, 1889, p.102 and p.108 (editor’s notes).
[cccxcix] Gould, ‘On Some Old Scottish Customs’, AQC, Vol 1, (1886), p.11. The quote is from J Hill Burton, The Scot Abroad, i, p.5.
[cd] A Bernheim, ‘’Dr Wilhelm Begemann – A Love-Hate Story’, on Pietre-Stones web-site,, p.6.
[cdi] See F Statham, Boers, Blacks and British, London, 1881, espec Ch xiv, pp.236+.
[cdii] P James, The Rise and Fall of the British Empire, Abacus, 1998, p.185.
[cdiii] P Harries, ‘Anthropology’, in N Etherington, ed, Missions and Empire, OUP, 2005, p.238-9.
[cdiv] J Fisher, The Afrikaners, Cassell, 1969, p.129.
[cdv] C Campbell, Fenian Fire, Harper Collins, 2003, p.173, quoting A Roberts, Salisbury: Victorian Titan, 1999.
[cdvi] F Lyons, Charles Stewart Parnell, Collins, 1977, p.282-5.
[cdvii] C Campbell, Fenian Fire, Harper Collins, 2003, p.173, fn 188, p.397.
[cdviii] J Harland-Jacobs, D Phil, ‘The Essential Link’: Freemasonry and British Imperialism, 1751-1918, Duke U, 2000, p.281.
[cdix] J Daniel, ‘Lord Carnarvon’s Visit to the Cape in 1887’, AQC, Vol 124 (2011), p.146.
[cdx] Circular No 8, dated by Speth 31 Jan, 1887 – copy in ‘Uncatalogued Folder – QC Records’, at Freemasons Library and Museum, London,
[cdxi] QC Minutes, 3 March, 1887 – Freemasons Library and Museum, London.
[cdxii] The Times, 12 Jan, 5 Feb, 1886.
[cdxiii] G Stedman-Jones, Outcast London, Clarendon, 1971, pp.292-3.
[cdxiv] B Porter, The Origins of the Vigilant State, Boydell, 1987, p.1.
[cdxv] C Campbell, Fenian Fire, Harper Collins, 2002.
[cdxvi] J Flanders, The Invention of Murder, Harper, 2011, p.445. A recent purported ‘autobiography’ of ‘The Ripper’ is clearly a fiction – J Carnac, The Autobiography of Jack the Ripper, Corgi, 2012.
[cdxvii] ‘The London Police’, re-printed in the SMH, 28 April, 1886.
[cdxviii] ‘King Stork’ Pall Mall Gazette, re-printed in the Brisbane Courier, 11 May, 1886.
[cdxix] The Atchison Daily Globe, Kansas, USA,16 Oct, 1888.
[cdxx] P Cornwall, Portrait of Killer, Little Brown, 2002, espec pp.95, 225.
[cdxxi] See Ch 2, ‘Long Days and Sleepless Nights’, in N Connell, Walter Dew, the Man Who Caught Crippin, Sutton, 2005, which draws on Dew’s memoirs.
[cdxxii] See K Macfarlane, review of C von Onselen, The Fox and the Flies: The Secret Life of a Grotesque Master Criminal, New York, Walker & Coy, 2007, in Jnl of Historical Biography, 3, Spring, 2008, pp.186-189. Anderson’s obituary in The Times summarising his memoirs shows that from 1880 he represented in London ‘the Irish Department for Police and Crime’ and in 1888 had succeeded Howard Vincent as head of the CID, being therefore, an ‘ex-officio Assistant Commissioner of Police’.
[cdxxiii] ‘Obituary Le Caron’, The Times 2 April, 1894, p.6.
[cdxxiv] W Stead, ‘Who is Responsible?’, 8 Oct, and ‘The Police and the Criminals of London’, Pall Mall Gazette, 8 and 9 Oct, 1888.
[cdxxv] C Warren, ‘The Police of the Metropolis’, Murray’s Magazine, Nov, 1888, p.577.
[cdxxvi] J Flanders, The Invention of Murder, Harper, 2011, pp.448-450.
[cdxxvii] D Turcato, Making Sense of Anarchism: Errico Malatesta’s Experiments with Revolution, 1889-1900, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
[cdxxviii] ‘The Resignation of Sir Charles Warren’, The Times, 13 Nov, 1888.
[cdxxix] C Campbell, Fenian Fire, Harper Collins, 2003, p.147.
[cdxxx] A Roberts, Salisbury: Victorian Titan, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1999, p.451.
[cdxxxi] ‘Special Notes’, Reynolds Newspaper, 25 Nov, 1888. See L Swartz, Infidel Feminism: Secularism, Religion and Women’s Emancipation, England, 1830-1914, MUP, 2012, for a counter-argument.
[cdxxxii] ‘School Board Election – Yiddish against Jew’, The Star, 31 Oct, 1888.
[cdxxxiii] See W Blythe, The Impact of Chinese Secret Societies in Malaya, OUP, 1969, espec Ch 11, ‘The Policy of Suppression, 1887-90’, pp.229-233.
[cdxxxiv] Inverness Courier, 4 Sept, 1891.
[cdxxxv] A Prescott, Talk to Public History Conference, 2006, p.2.
[cdxxxvi] Dyer, The History of the First 100 Years of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 2076, 1986,(typescript) in which he ascribes the 1884 draft to WH Rylands. The ‘Proposal of Bye-Laws for the Lodge Quatuor Coronati’, Nov, 1884, in Uncatalogued Folder at Freemasons Library and Museum, London, appears to be by Speth.
[cdxxxvii] Comparatively recent, Masonic background information is available on Speth, at D Peabody, ‘GW Speth’, AQC, Vol 120, 2007, pp.2-25; Warren, at A Jackson, ‘Sir Charles Warren’, AQC, Vol 99, 1986, pp.167-189; Woodford at J Seed, ‘AFA Woodward’, AQC, Vol 93, 1980, pp.118-128; Gould at F Cooper, ‘Robert Freke Gould’, AQC, Vol93, 1980, pp.98-117.
[cdxxxviii] Woodford, AQC, Vol 1, 1886, p.6.
[cdxxxix] Quote from ‘Report of Permanent and Audit Committee’, December, 1887, p.1. ‘Masterpiece’ in Speth’s ‘Report of the Permanent Committee’, Sept, 1886.
[cdxl] The Freemason, 2 May, 1896.
[cdxli] Dyer suggests that JP Rylands removed to the north of England to practice law – The History of the First 100 Years of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 2076, 1986 (typescript), p.14. Speth announced the resignation in March, 1887, referring to correspondence in Oct & Dec, 1886 – QC Minutes for mtg 3 March, 1887, AQC, Vol 1.
[cdxlii] The Freemason, May, 1880, p.8,
[cdxliii] AQC, Vol 1, p.72. ‘Williams’ referred to by Gould, Freemasons Chronicle, 19 July, 1890, p.11, and ‘Pratt’ appear to have contributed little.
[cdxliv] W Rylands, ‘In Memoriam: Sir William Besant’, AQC, Vol xiv Pt 2, p.107.
[cdxlv] Gould to Irwin, 10 Jan, 1886, Folder ‘L 2076.’
[cdxlvi] See Gould’s long recital of Bywater’s Masonic career and total ignore of any other, at AQC, Vol III (1890), pp.182-3.
[cdxlvii] ‘Addenda’, AQC, Vol 3, Pt 3, p.182. Simpson was in Afghanistan – see his obituary, The Freemason, 2 Sept, 1899.
[cdxlviii] JT Perry, ‘The Late Thomas Hayter Lewis, FSA’, J of the Royal Institute of British Architects, 14 Jan, 1899, p.161.
[cdxlix] Fenn, as above, p.7.
[cdl] Gould later gave an account of this ‘unpromising condition’ – ‘Addenda’, AQC, Vol 3, Pt 3, p.183.
[cdli] Circular 5, 11 Oct 1886, copy in uncatalogued folder, Freemasons Library and Museum, London.
[cdlii] AQC, 1887, p.86.
[cdliii] AQC, 1886, p.27.
[cdliv] ‘Record of Attendance – Names in Class Order…’, in Minutes of QC Lodge, p.38.
[cdlv] AQC, Vol 1, p.28.
[cdlvi] Gould, as above, p.66.
[cdlvii] Letter Hamill to Batham, 10 Feb, 1982 – copy in ‘L2076’, London Freemasons Museum and Library.
[cdlviii] ‘Peeter-Baertsoen Prize’, AQC, Vol 3, p.121.
[cdlix] W Hughan, ‘Gould’s History of Freemasonry’, The Freemason, July, 1887, p.5.
[cdlx] ‘In Memoriam’, The Freemason, 4 May, 1901.
[cdlxi] J Norton ‘The Grand Lodge Library’, The Freemason,, 22 May, 1880.
[cdlxii] G Speth, Sec QC, ‘Letter to Brethren’, AQC, Vol 1, 27 Dec, 1888, p.4.
[cdlxiii] RF Gould, ‘Masonic Libraries’, The Freemason, Aug, 1892, p.1.
[cdlxiv] A Bernheim, ‘Dr Wilhelm Begemann vs the English Masonic History Establishment: A Love-Hate Story’, for which see <www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/bernheim18.html> or the <Pietre-Stones> website.
[cdlxv] ‘Wor Bro William G Speth’, The Freemason, Dec, 1892, p.3, reprinted from Rough Ashlar, (US).
[cdlxvi] ‘Presentation to Bro GW Speth’, The Freemason, 17 Nov, 1894, p.203.
[cdlxvii] W. Upton, (ed), ‘Introductory Note’, to GW Speth, An English View of Freemasonry in America, Washington, 1897, np (p.1?).
[cdlxviii] R Gould, ‘Free and Freemasonry’, The Freemason, 10 Sept, 1898, p.171.
[cdlxix] G Speth, ‘Notes for the Consideration of the Committee’, 23 Feb, 1900, at ‘L 2076’, London’s Library and Museum of Freemasonry.
[cdlxx] Woodford declared bankruptcy before QC began work – Morning Post, 24 Nov, 1885, p.3 & 20 Jan, 1886.
[cdlxxi] AQC, 1886, p.49.
[cdlxxii] I Grantham to Hewitt, 21 February, 1977, referring to the period 1947-52. Folder ‘L 2076’.
[cdlxxiii] AQC, Vol XIV, Pt 2, p.101.
[cdlxxiv] Died 14 April, 1901, see ‘In Memoriam: GW Speth’, AQC, Vol xiv, Pt 2, pp.97-104, for depth of loss felt.
[cdlxxv] Draft version, 1986, in LF2076, Freemason’s Library and Museum, London, pp.1-2.
[cdlxxvi] Editorial, ‘Ars Quatuor Coronatorum’, The Masonic Star, 3 Jan, 1889, p.1.
[cdlxxvii] R Gould, ‘Masonic Celebrities No 3 – Albert Pike’, AQC, Vol IV (1891), p.133.
[cdlxxviii] Letter Pike to Gould, 8 Sept, 1888, quoted at R Gould, ‘Masonic Celebrities No 3 – Albert Pike’, AQC, Vol IV, (1891), p.133.
[cdlxxix] G Speth, ‘Two New Versions of the Old Charges’, AQC, Vol I, (1887), p.129.
[cdlxxx] Speth to Irwin, 14 December, 1889, Folder ‘L 2076’.
[cdlxxxi] Speth to all members, 18 April, 1891, Folder ‘L 2076’.
[cdlxxxii] Speth to all members, ‘Circular 12’, nd, (mid-1887), Folder ‘L 2076’.
[cdlxxxiii] Hughan to Malden, 15 January, 1896, Folder ‘L 2076’.
[cdlxxxiv] Chetwode-Crawley to Sadler, 22 May, 1895, Folder ‘L 2076’.
[cdlxxxv] Hand written note, presumed to be from Warren, on back of Circular No. 6 of 19 November, 1886, addressed to Warren from Speth, Folder ‘L 2076’, UGLE Library & Museum, London.
[cdlxxxvi] Copy in Folder’ L 2076’.
[cdlxxxvii] Circular No 6, ‘Correspondence Circle’, 19 November, 1886, Folder ‘L 2076’.
[cdlxxxviii] Speth to Irwin, 18 March, 1887, Folder ‘L 2076’.
[cdlxxxix] ‘Hughan Testimonial’, The Freemason, 31 May, 1884.
[cdxc] ‘American Copyright’, Letter from RF Gould to The Times, 14 Oct, 1887, p.4.
[cdxci] Report of the Permanent and Audit Committee, December, 1887, p.1.
[cdxcii] Unsigned, un-dated (1905?), handwritten note in ‘QC’ folder at UGLE Library/Museum, and headed ‘Correspondence Circle’ accumulates the numbers in QC Minutes.
[cdxciii] Gould letter, ‘The Lodge Quatuor Coronati’, Freemasons’ Chronicle, 19 July, 1890.
[cdxciv] ‘South Australia’, in Transactions, Vol 3, 1888, p.64, quoting The South Australian Freemason.
[cdxcv] ‘Report of the Permanent and Audit Committee’, AQC, Vol xiv, Pt 2, p.2.
[cdxcvi] Unsigned, undated note (1905?), as above.
[cdxcvii] Addition by Spiers, 12 April, 1894, to Circular, from Speth, April, 1894, copy in Freemasons Hall Library/Museum, London.
[cdxcviii] Letter, Brother J Spiers’ to CC Members in Qld, 1 Jan, 1893 – copy in Folder LF 2076, Freemasons Library & Museum, London.
[cdxcix] The South Australian Freemason, 12 April, 1913, p.9.
[d] See Report of the Permanent and Audit Committee, 1952, in Folder LF 2076, at Freemasons Hall, London, LF 2076.
[di] Notes, by CFW Dyer, perhaps for 1986 Dinner, nd, 6 pp.
[dii] ‘The Supplement, Miscellanea Latomorum’, AQC, Vol 81, 1968, p.317.
[diii] ‘Lodges of Research’, The Freemason, (London), 18 July, 1914, p.119.
[div] Editorial, The WA Freemason, 15 December, 1912, p.18.
[dv] Quoted by The WA Freemason, 15 Dec, 1912, p.21.
[dvi] Masonic Studies Circle Network, Qld, 29 Sept, 2011, Vol 25, No 3, p.1.
[dvii] H Whymper, The Religion of Freemasonry, England, 1888 – Introduction by Hughan at pp.i-vii; quote from Speth at ‘Reviews’, AQC Vol 1, Pt 5, p.213.
[dviii] G Speth, ‘A Masonic Curriculum’, AQC, Vol III, (1890), pp.116-120.
[dix] ‘Bro. MJ Spurr’, discussing E Howe, ‘Fringe Masonry in England 1870-85’, AQC, Vol 85, p.289.
[dx] ‘Quatuor Coronati Lodge No 2076’, Transactions, Vol 121 for 2008, p.v.
[dxi] F Radice, ‘Reflections on the Antiquity of the Order of the Royal Arch’, AQC, Vol 77, 1964, p.201+.
[dxii] H Carr, ‘Three Phases of Masonic History’, AQC, Vol 77, for 1964, pp.256-7.
[dxiii] A reasonable account of the variations is at A Millar, Freemasonry A History, Thunder Bay, 2005, pp.226-8.
[dxiv] R Hutton, The Triumph of the Moon, OUP, 1999, p.72.
[dxv] AQC, 1887, p.67.
[dxvi] Woodford, as above, p.70, p.73.
[dxvii] R Gilbert, ‘The Golden Dawn Scrapbook, Weiser, 1997, p.26.
[dxviii] See ‘Minutes’ for mtgs 4 May, and 25 June, 1888, Transactions, Vols 1-3, pp.61, 62, 137.
[dxix] W Westcott, ‘The Rosicrucian Society of England’, AQC, Vol 1, Pt 2, 1887, p.54. His paper begins on p.55.
[dxx] Westcott, as above, p.55.
[dxxi] W Westcott, ‘The Rosicrucian Society of England’, AQC, 1886, p.54.
[dxxii] Hughan, AQC , Vol 1, Pt 2, p.50.
[dxxiii] ‘Bro Woodman’, AQC, Vol 1, p.53.
[dxxiv] As above, p.50.
[dxxv] Warren, as above, p.7.
[dxxvi] AQC, 1886, p.42.
[dxxvii] AQC, 1886, p.45.
[dxxviii] E Howe, ‘Fringe Masonry in England 1870-85’, AQC, Vol 85, p.250, fn.4.
[dxxix] Gilbert, 1997, as above, p.34.
[dxxx] Gilbert, 1997, as above, p.5.
[dxxxi] Gilbert, 1997, as above, pp.72-3.
[dxxxii] Gilbert, 1997, as above, p.36.
[dxxxiii] T Churton, Aleister Crowley – The Biography, Watkins, 2011, Ch 4.
[dxxxiv] M Karn, ‘Aleister Crowley – The Wickedest Man in the World – A Freemason?’, The Square, March, 2015, p.34.
[dxxxv] AQC, Vol 1, Pt 3.
[dxxxvi] Howe, AQC, Vol 85, p.258, fn.2.
[dxxxvii] Rylands, AQC, Vol 2, p.40. A brief tribute to Simpson is G Kendall, ‘Crimean Simpson’, AQC, Vol 105 (1992) pp.195-201.
[dxxxviii] ‘Preface’, by G Eyre-Todd, (ed) of W Simpson, The Autobiography of William Simpson RI, Unwin, 1903, p.viii.
[dxxxix] ‘Preface’, as above, p.x.
[dxl] Eyre-Todd, as above, 1903, p.287.
[dxli] See Annie Besant letter, p.11, and editorial note in Pall Mall Gazette, 28 Dec, 1888.
[dxlii] A Lycett, The Man who Created Sherlock Holmes, p.423.
[dxliii] J Ure, Shooting Leave, Constable, 2007, pp.188-190.
[dxliv] G Milton, Russian Roulette, Sceptre, 2013, p.4.
[dxlv] P Hopkirk, Foreign Devils on the Silk Road, Oxford, 2001 (orig 1968), p.190.
[dxlvi] S Wignall, Spy on the Roof of the World, Lyons and Burford, 1996.
[dxlvii] R Aldington, quoting Lawrence and others, Lawrence of Arabia, Pelican, 1971, pp.126, 146. See also S Anderson, Lawrence in Arabia, Atlantic, 2013, pp.46. 61-2.
[dxlviii] E Kedourie, ‘Appendix’, to ‘Young Turks, Freemasons and Jews’, in Arabic Political Memoirs and Other Studies, Cass, 1974, p.249.
[dxlix] E Kedourie, ‘Young Turks, Freemasons and Jews’, in Arabic Political Memoirs and Other Studies, Cass, 1974, p.247.
[dl] B Porter, Plots and Paranoia, Unwin, 1909, p.120.
[dli] A Wilson, SW Persia – A Political Officer’s Diary, 1907-1914, OUP, 1941, p.x.
[dlii] W Besant, London in the Nineteenth Century, 1909, p.274.
[dliii] P Villari, ‘Is History a Science?’, Studies Historical and Critical, London, 1907, p.51.
[dliv] P Villari, ‘Is History a Science?’, Studies Historical and Critical, London, 1907, pp.27-8.